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Reach weapons, combat reflexes, step up, and massive damage make you a tank in pathfinder.
Depending upon how old-school you want to get with definitions, "tank" originally meant someone who can ward off massive punishment (physical and mental) -- he is not normally the PC capable of dishing out the most damage (although he often, from mere appearance, fools the enemy into assuming so). A good way to judge a the "tankiness" of a build is to measure how much healing/unsucking it needs during combat with challenging opponents.
The mentality of the steroid barbarian is "I'm going to dish it out faster than I take it!"
The mentality of the tank is "I'm going to take it less than I dish it out!"
-- S&B paladins and dwarf fighters are the toughest tanks.
T'nk (20pt dwarf)
traits: Birthmark (religion), Glory of Old (regional)
01 fight1 [Tower Shield Specialist], Iron Will, Steel Soul
...equipment: four mirror armor (45), tower shield (30), dwarven waraxe (30)
Attack: (3-2=)+1; AC:22; saves vs. magic: F+10/R+7/W+9 (+11 vs charm/compulsion).
-- At 1st level, T'nk is only ~45% to hit crappy mooks, but they need a 19 or 20 to hit him. He makes his saves ~80% of the time. Party healer seldom has to "budget" resources for him.
02 cleric1 [Abadar:Protection/Travel], 1st
... saves: F+13/R+8/W+13 (no cloak, no spells!); Sense Motive now class, speed doubles to 40 in heavy armor with Longstrider up.
03 fight2 [Burst Barrier], Shield Focus, Additional Traits [Militant Merchant (racial), Defender of the Society (combat)]
...AC now +2, Perception jumps +5 this level (assuming bought).
04 fight3 STR>16, [Tower Shield Training]
05 fight4 Dodge, Combat Expertise
06 fight5 [Tower Shield Specialist]
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Skills per level: 4 (spent on Perception, Sense Motive, rest grab bag).
Tactics: Takes point (or is second after a rogue). Expects to (and positions himself to) bear the brunt of melee attacks. Unlike most fighters, invites being targeted by spellcasters.
Offense is worthless at low-level but mainly irrelevant since his job is to block the choke-point eating all the incoming; offense steadily improves thereafter (he is, after all, a fighter). Teener levels: T'nk has traded some offensive power (Weapon Training + gloves) for best-in-game defense (tower shield bonus now applying to touch AC as well); he considers this well worth it, since he expects to be a target three to four times as often as he gets to attack.