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If not used against a single item, Mage's Disjunction is an area of effect (burst) spell. I believe that most burst work in such a way, that if they destroy a barrier they continue as normal. Which means that when Mage's Disjunction destroys a magical barier, it can affect the area behind as normal.

It is refering to the ring stone in Riddleport, the Cyphergate.

I would say that a frightened, fleeing mount stops beeing willing to carry a rider. That would mean that normal rules for riding (which assume a willing mount) may no longer apply.

There are no specific rules for that, so some need to be made. I suggest forcing a check to stay in the saddle, something like this:

STAY IN THE SADDLE, cost 1 action, Acrobatics check
Requirements You are mounted on a mount that is is moving on its own without you Commanding it.
Critical Success You stay mounted with no penalty.
Success You manage to stay mounted but are clumsy 2.
Failure You manage to stay mounted, but you must use all your actions to keep balance. Your turn ends.
Critical Failure You fall off the horse and become prone. Your turn ends.

The DC should be set based on how violent the motion of the mount is. Staying in a saddle of a fleeing mount sems like an Expert task to me.

A truly great catastrophe can really mess things up. It is said that after the first great catastrophe in which many people died the River of Souls overflowed, with some of the souls landing in Abaddon. They were the origin of the first daemons.

I've also found this passage

Planar Adventures wrote:
Adventurers or loved ones can seek out individual souls within the crowds of the Boneyard, but picking out a single soul from the crowd of millions upon millions is no easy feat.

It seems that "millions upon millions" is the normal size of the crowd in the Boneyard, so even a destruction of a civilization may not be enough to interfere with the normal working of the Pharasma's Court. You may need a catastrophe of at least planetary size.

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This is an image from Dungeon Denizens Revisited:

https://vignette.wikia.nocookie.net/pathfinder/images/2/27/Mimic.jpg/revisi on/latest?cb=20090323120410

I'd say no, but you can make tem experience these opponents later, or you can get the opponents to come down to the library (Mokmurian may send the forgefiend to tell them they are needed downstairs). If the players are confident they are ready to face the boss while having enemies at their back, let them.

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Planar Adventures classify divines into deites, demigods and quasi-deities. Mythic characters belong to the last group.

Planar Adventures wrote:

Quasi deities are the least powerful of the divine, and the most eclectic in their nature. A quasi deity has a stat block, and can be of any CR (although the vast majority lie in the CR 21–25 range). Nascent demon lords, the malebranche, and qlippoth lords are all examples of quasi deities, as are creatures like deep one elders, conqueror worms, and green men, who have the ability to grant spells to clerics. Mythic characters who take the divine source path ability are also quasi deities.

Quasi deities have no inborn ability to shape and alter reality by thought alone, even if they somehow gain control of a planar realm, and must rely upon their own abilities and magic to effect changes of this nature.

A quasi deity grants from one to four domains to its clerics.

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You can make your own monster basing on existing creature. For example:

- take an attic whisperer
- remove Aura of Sobs, Steal Voice and Steal Breath abilities
- give it abilities Vermin Empathy (like the one that mites have) and Infestation (similar to the one deathwebs have, possibly without the poison, and does not return if destroyed)
- give it a couple of giant centipedes as friends to play with
- describe it as a poor undead girl friendly with vermin to the point that vermin protect her

Evan Riggs wrote:
what about a dhampir who uses Infuse Self, can he be healed by positive energy?

The dhampir's Negative Energy Affinity is not an extraordinary or supernatural ability, nor does it depend on the form the dhampir takes, so it is not lost when under the effect of a spell with polymorph subscschool. The wording of Insuse Self doesn't mention it either. That means that the ability stays, and the dhampir is still damaged by positive energu.

Just like this thread.

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I suggest a different set of core principles of magic, that I believe are more general.

1. Magical phenomena can affect physical world, the way it is perceived by minds, the minds themselves, or other magical phenomena.
2. Magical phenomena can break what we consider to be the laws of physics.
3. Physical objects and minds may possess some quality that allows them to create magical phenomena.

And that's basically all that can be said about all magic systems that I know. Anything more will not apply in evry case.

In Pathfinder setting, but not in all other settings, there are additional things about magic, that can be observed.

4. The magical phenomena may persist even after its source is gone.
5. Even if objects and minds possess the quality necessary to create magical phenomena, their ability of doing so may depend on their particular stat (for example, whether a wizard have any prepared spells available) and their location (you can't use magic in an anti-magic zone).
6. There exist various traditions avaiable that magic users, that require different qualities from the magic users and differ in what type of effects they can create.
7. Magic of one tradition can affect the magic of another tradition, which shows that various traditions are not completely indepentent types of magic, and they share some common base.
8. Magic can break locality; a magic effect can instantly affect a distant place or even a completely diferent plane without affecting anything in between (for example teleportation effects).
9. Magic can break causality, allowing some limited forms of precognition and time travel.

(4) and (5) mean that there must exist some medium that can subsist the magical effect even after the source of this effect is gone.
This magic medium may subsist a number of various magical effects, and it can even create wild magic zones or dead magic zones. This means that it is a thing that may exist in many different states.

(6) and (7) means that even though they are various method in which physical object and minds can interact with the magic medium, it is still the same magic medium.

(8) and (9) are to me a strong argument that waves are not a proper description of states of the magic medium, as the wave description of any medium requires them to propagate with some finate speed (although it may be arbitrarily big) and respect causality.

What is the level of PCs we are talking about?

You can make the mayor to be some fey, or be under fey influence. The fey may do some good things for the town, like ensuring better harvest or give some other blessing, but at the same time it regularly kidnaps people as 'fair payment'.

Another option is a devil that disguises as a human. He runs the town efficiently, with some sinsiter plot in mind, and ruthlessly eliminates everyone who gets too close to discovering the truth.

MidsouthGuy wrote:
I would assume that since it is a fundamental part of their life cycle that adult barghests would be able to send them to the material plane.

Except barghest (like all other outsiders) are not creatures created by evolution. I believe the original barhest were from Hell, but at some point they were snatched by Lamashtu who created her own breed. Anyway, there's no reason to think that they are supposed to be a species capable of reaching their full potential on their own.

And the greater barghest don't have any innate ability to plane shift or call other barghest. The most they could do is subjugate a tribe of humanoids and made them perform a ritual to call another barghest.

The deities themselves don't really get involved in this adventure path.

Desna's followers don't appear in Book 3. Parts of Books 4 and 5 require the PCs to return to Sandpoint, so the'll meet with Father Zantus again. In Book 6 the PCs may find an abandoned ancient temple to Desna in Xin-Shalast, but her followers are no longer there.

As Captain Morgan Mentioned, followers of Lamashtu appear in Books 3, 4 and 5, and it may giveyou the opportunity to get Desna involved as well.

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Where do you get that all of them come to the Material Plane? We just know that they need to feed on innocents to grow, but since they're outsiders, they won't die if they don't do it, they just don't grow stronger. If a barghest wants to get stronger, he needs to find a way to the Material Plane, but we don't know if all barghests manage to do that.

However, I think for most it's just the question of time. They all eventualy find a way to get to the Material Plane one way or another.

I'm also not sure if all of them go back. The Bestiary says

A barghest eventually sheds its skin to transform into a greater barghest, at which point it often seeks out a tribe of goblins or other creatures to rule.

It doesn't seem like greater barghests necessarily need to go back, at the very least they don't need to hurry.

I think that if you have established a normal grapple, it counts as grappling with all you have - that;s why on subsequent turns you can at most deal little damage equivalent to one attack, and you cannot make a full attack (since it ccosts a standard action to maintain the grapple). Even a creature with grab ability doesn't get grappled condition, but on subsequent turn it still needs to maintain grapple as standard action, which limits its other action and suggest it's rather fully engaged int he grappling.

So even if the grapple was initiated with the claws, when the next turn comes, I'd say that the creature is already using all it has to maintain the grapple. Which would mean that it uses its bite to, and can immediately use Swallow Whole.

Ths only means they can;t use their own power to travel. But there is plenty of other powers that they can use.

Presumably there are hidden portals that they can use (permanent, or working only in specific conditions - the setting books mentione sometimes such portals). They may get help from other outsiders, or even deities like Lamashtu. They may get called with Planar Binding, Planar Ally or occult rituals, but failing their task (or never receiving one) they get stuck on the Material Plane (at least one barghest from the Adventure Paths belongs to this category).

foggy1 wrote:
Alter Self into a 4-armed Gargoyle might do if objections are minimal. Is there another 4+ armed humanoid that I'm overlooking?

Gargoyles are monstrous humanoids, that is a separate type from humanoids. Alter Self won't work. You'd need Monstrous Physique.

Kasatha are four-armed humanoids, but as a GM I would limit access to this form, are kasatha are reclusive and unknown to most people on Golarion.

As for monstrous humanoids there's also Four-Armed Sahuagin Mutant.

I would also note that there are some effects that distinguish between harmless and not harmless spells, for example spell scourge.

These are the spell-like abilities granted by Xoveron as first demonic boon to a character with Demonic Obecience feat. As spell-like abilities, they are not enough to qualify for Dragon Disciple.

Yeah, I know that some races (grippli, tengu, strix, gathlain etc.) have access to flight or gliding, but I've specified I'm looking for options for a human.

As for magic items, I've found an option that is cheaper than all of those already mentioned: Featherscale Cloak. It costs only 4000 gp and among other things allows to transform into a bird to get flight speed.

Personally, as a home rule I would allow greater polymorph (and by extension polymorph any object) to transform also into monstrous humanoids (as monstrous physique IV), undead (as undead anatomy III), vermin (as vermin shape II), fey (as fey form II) and oozes (as ooze form II). All of these spells are of the same power level as other polymorph spells that greater polymorph can mimic, it's just that they haven't appeared in the Core Rulebook, so greater polymorph couldn't mention them.

Still there are no spells that allow polymorphing into aberrations, constructs, or outsiders other than elementals, so these forms remain unavailable.

Coidzor wrote:
Polymorph Any Object wrote:
This spell can also be used to duplicate the effects of baleful polymorph, greater polymorph, flesh to stone, stone to flesh, transmute mud to rock, transmute metal to wood, or transmute rock to mud.

That is not at all worded as a limitation and is largely unchanged from the 3.5 wording where it was intended as an add-on or additional ability of the spell.

So I'm going to have to ask you for your source on that sentence being intended as a limitation.

The limitation is not in this sentence (which is in fact an additional option), but in the sentence:

Polymorph Any Object wrote:
This spell functions like greater polymorph, except that it changes one object or creature into another.

Since PAO works like greater polymorph, all limitations of greater polymorph apply, unless they are removed by the description PAO. And greater polymorph has a specific list of forms that it allows. PAO adds the forms of objects to the list, but no new living forms.

Yqatuba wrote:
How do you exorcise a possessing creature? I would say dismissal or banishment should force them to save or be forced out. Maybe allow dispel (alignment) would work if they are the right alignment as well.

Protection from Alignment would gives another save. You can also immobilize the target and just wait until possesion duration ends. You may also use mental attacks to make the possessing creature to give up and flee.

Dismissal, Banishment and Dispel Alignment would work only if the possessor is a creature from another plane.

You don't need these abilities to practice thread necromancy.

To rank up Fly skill, one needs to have either innate ability to flide or glide, or at least have a reliable means of flying everyday. However clerics don't get spell fly unless they get it from their domain, and Gozreh suprisingly doesn't grass acces to any of the domains that give fly spell.

What are other means for a human cleric (no multiclassing) to get reliable means of flying as soon as possible?

Crossbreading manticore with other magical beasts seems to produse an offspring that is mainly of that other race, but has manticore tail. So a griffon with manticore tail seems natural.

Other possibility may be a manticore with griffon's feathery wings, and its flight speed/maneuverability.

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Kasoh wrote:
The PCs are heroes, yes. Heroes in a setting that is designed to produce heroes.

It's almost as if Aroden had planned it.

Diego Rossi wrote:

In my previous post, I was speaking of gaining templates like [iurl=https://aonprd.com/MonsterTemplates.aspx?ItemName=Devilbound]Devilbound[/url]. Changing someone natural alignment by force should be extrmly difficult.

I agree; as far as I am concerned, the alignment is only descriptive, so to actualy change a character's natural alignment one would need to perform some mind-affecting and change the character's beliefs and worldview. The atonement spell is unique in that it requires a willing target that really wishes to atone, and the spell is a way for such soul to be cleansed of former trnagsgressions.

Still, there are some ways to affect someone's alignment, and it doesn't seem like they are meant to just change the detectable aura, but athey actually affect the behavior. There's a 12-th level alchemist discovery Change Alignment, though it's temporary (and it's basically mind control). Greater Change Alignment is permanent, but it is only available at 20th level. Some cursed magic items may change the user's alignment for as long as they are carried. There are also some artifacts, like Book of the Damned and Deck of Many Things that can do that to someone attempting to use them.

But I agree with you, such effects should be used rarely and only to make a better story. Especially when used against the PCs, as they can ruin someone's character.

Diego Rossi wrote:

I generally agree with Adjoint post, but I feel that it is really difficult to impose an aligned template to an unwilling creature if it doesn't match the creature alignment.

Undead templates are an exception, but, at that point, generally, the soul has already gone to Pharasma.

Spell infernal healing expressly changes how one is detected temporarily, and it doesn't require a willing target. I'd say that spells like angelic aspect or holy/unholy aura would also change how one is detected. Permanent effects, like succubus's gift indeed usually need a willing target, but they can stick around even after the character changes the mind about the whole dealing with demons thing. Some curses that affect how one is detected may also exist.

Diego Rossi wrote:
There is some specific comment about that at p. 154 of Ultimate intrigue, but I recall reading that well before that book was published.

I found this clause (it's actualy on p. 155). I wasn't aware of that, I never thought that an aligned action can for that moment change how one is detected. I guess thta can be interpreted as the action creating an 'ethical signature' that can overshadow normal alignment, in a way, what is detected is the alignment of the deed not of the person themselves.

Diego Rossi wrote:

"Where a soul fit best" and "where a soul deserves to go". For the traditionalist Catholics, a single moment of repentance at the end of the life will count more than a life of murder and a single grave sin not followed by repentance before the end of the life is enough to condemn you, even if you were the best person in the universe.

If we use that, the murder and rapist soul "deserve" to go to Purgatory and then Paradise if he repented, while the otherwise good farmer that killed him because he raped and killed his daughter and never repented "deserve" to go to Hell.
I prefer a system where a soul is sent where it fits best. A single, momentary, "I repent" isn't enough, repentance requires trying to compensate for your wrong acts.

I don't want to bring IRL religions into this; I'd like to focus on what we know about how Pharasma operates.

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Paradozen wrote:
Adjoint wrote:
I've looked though some books and found many cities with 9th level spellcasting available to the public. This list is surely not complete: ... Alkenstar ...
Wait, the city in the middle of a dead-magic desert has 9th level spellcasting? What?

I also find it strange, but that's what the city stats given in Pathfinder Module: Wardens of the Reborn Forge say. It gains 9th level spelcasting due to being a metropolis with a holy site of Brigh. I agree it should also get a significant penalty, but alas it does not.

By the way, not all Mana Wastes is a dead magic zone; some of it are primal magic zones. And some areas change unpredictably between dead magic, primal magic and normal magic.

Skulls and Shackles AP was published before Advanced Class Guide, so naturally none of the NPCs in it have levels in swashbuckler class. Are there any NPCs in the AP that worth to rewrite as swashbucklers (or other ACG classes)? Has anyone done it?

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All metropolises (cities with population of at least 25000) grant access to 8th level spellcasting, and with some special modifiers (Magical, Academic, Holy Site, Magically Attuned or Pious) it can be increased to 9th level. With multiple modfieir, it's possible even for smaller cities. That means that 9th level spellcasters that sell their services are not that uncommon, and there's likely many more that would rather keep their services exclusive. Even if they are not the rulers, they are unlikely to just stay uninvolved when the place where they built their home gets endangered.

I've looked though some books and found many cities with 9th level spellcasting available to the public. This list is surely not complete:
Absalom, Alkenstar, Almas (Andoran), An (Osirion), Augustana (Andoran), Canorate (Molthune), Chesed (Numeria), Chillblight (Irrisen), Egorian (Cheliax), Jaha (Mwangi Expanse), Katheer (Qadira), Korvosa (Varisia), Mzali (Mwangi Expanse), Nantambu (Mwangi Expanse), Nerosyan (Mendev), Oppara (Taldor), Osibu (Mwangi Expanse), Pangolais (Nidal), Ridwan (Nidal), Sothis (Osirion), Totra (Osirion), Westcrown (Cheliax), Whitethrone (Irrisen).

Other Inner Sea metropolises (for most I haven't found the full stats, but some of them surely have access to 9th level spellcasting):
Aspenthar (Thuvia), Ayesh (Qadira), Azir (Rahadoum), Cassomir (Taldor), Daggermark (River Kingdoms), Halgrim (Land of the Linnorm Kings), Hawah (Qadira), Highelm (Five Kings Mountains), Iadara (Kyonin), Isarn (Galt), Jawafeeq (Qadira), Kalsgard (Land of the Linnorm Kings), Katapesh, Katheer (Qadira), Khundurai (Qadira), Manaket (Rahadoum), Mechitar (Geb), Merab (Thuvia), Merev (Qadira), New Stetven (Brevoy), Nithveil (Land of the Linnorm Kings), Port Peril (the Shackles), Quantium (Nex), Sedeq (Qadira), Senghor (Mwangi Expanse), Starfall (Numeria), Sukri (Qadira), Urgir (Hold of Belkzen), Yled (Geb).

Even places like Tamran (Nirmathas), Kaer Maga, Magnimar or Riddleport have access to 8th level spellcasting, despite not being metropolises.

There doesn't seem to be a lack of high-level characters, even if they don't rule countries.

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I was thinking about the alignment in Pathfinder, and I figured out it may be useful to think of it as having to components: one dependent on person's deeds, and the other based on various supernatural effects, like spells, rituals etc.

The first one can be called 'natural alignment', changing slowly and accruing through the whole life. It changes bit a bit with every aligned deed. As I understand, changing one's philosophy is not enough to immediately change the alignment, but it's a good start as it will make the person act differently. Still, it make take a long time to compensate a lifetime or sin. The atonement spell is the only way to quickly change this part of alignment.

The other part of alignment is supernatural, and depends on various magical conditions affecting the character. For example, while paladins and clerics need specific natural alignment to be able to get their class abilities, the also get supernatural alignment from the divine connections that boosts their aura. The pacts with demons or devils and other effect that change how a character is seen by detect spells would also influence only the supernatural alignment. This alignment may change fast, as magical effects come and go.

Neither part directly affects the character's behavior (although some spells that affect the alignment may do so as a second effect). In other words, alignment is descriptive, not prescriptive.

For the purposes of spells and effects, the supernatural alignment would be more important; for example if someone was a good person through mosst of the life, but then got corrupted and became a cleric of evil god, he'd have an evil aura and the previous good deeds don't mater. The natural alignment only matters if there's no supernatural component.

For mortal justice the natural alignment would be more important, as it is understood that there are many ways to temporarily change their alignment magically, but that doesn't absolve anyone of guilt or make them guilty. That's why detecting alignment with spells cannot be used as a prrof in mortal court.

But for the soul's afterlife both components matter, and if they don't match that's what Pharasma's Court is for, to determine where the soul belongs. Note however that Pharasma doesn't really care about justice, just about the stability of the cosmos, and her courts send souls wherever they fit best, not where they deserve to go.

Any thoughts?

Ventnor wrote:
Maybe Abdengo is the local translation of Aroden's name? Since the storm appeared after he died, after all.

But the Gulf of Abendego existed long before that. In the Age of Legends the cyclopean kingdom of Ghol-Gan was located here, but it was flooded by the waters of Arcadian Ocean during the Earthfall.

I'd assume that it was named by later Taldan or Chelish explorers, though the name may have earlier origin.

In We Be Goblins! we can find pictures of Vorka and Reta Bigbad, two female goblins with hair. In the same book, chief Gutwad is shown to have some patchy facial hair.

There's a guy called Abednego in the Bible.

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Concordance of Rivals says quite a lot, it's just I can't quite make much sens eof it. Let me give you some quotes:

"Upon this floated the Survivor, resting upon the sole fragment that had survived her homeworld’s apocalypse: the Seal."

"The Survivor pulled upon the vortex [of quintessence], stretching it between herself and the anchor, swaddling the Seal within."

"At [the astral expanse's] calm center glowed the Seal, whose light reflected infinite possibilities yet to be realized."

"The Survivor looked back to the Seal, nestled deep in the heart of the new reality."

"Two motes floated about the Seal. Only after eons did they learn to move and dance, after which the Seal released more motes." (These motes seems to be souls, but may be specifically souls of the gods.)

"[Pharasma] cast herself from her tower toward the Maelstrom, ushering the shattered quintessence toward her, twisting it into a river that she rode toward the Seal. Few sensed her passage. The Seal had dimmed from the gods’ countless demands, so she bid the quintessence to encircle and protect it from further abuse, much as she had sealed this reality from the hunger of the Those Who Remain."

The Seal is mentioned more times, but from these we can tell that the Seal seems to be a fragment of a previous reality that Pharasma placed at the center of the current reality and somehow is able to create life/souls. I have a couple of hypoteses:

1. The Seal is an object somewhere in the Positive Energy Plane. (Argument: it is the source of life in the cosmos.)
2. The Seal is an object contained within the Pharasma's Spire. (Argument: the River of Souls seems to lead to it and swirl around it.)

I seek more arguments for one or the other, or that it's something else.

Concordance of Rivals mentions the Seal, a fragment of previous reality that survived together with Pharasma, and it seems that Pharasma used it somehow to shape the present cosmos. But it's unclear to me what the Seal became in the current reality, and what exactly is its role. Anyone can explain?

You may also consider that the intensity of the light decreases with distance; and the illumination strongly depends on the angle of illumination. When the source of light is 30 degrees above the horizon, the illumination already drops by factor of two.

A shard that creates perpetual daylight in its vincinity, at large distance may look like just a bright star on the horizon, and somwewhere between would be a twilight zone.

The radii of various zones depend not only on the elevation, but also on the strength of the shard.

In these cases you can treat these rolls as "getting a hunch":

Core Rulebook, p. 104 wrote:
Hunch: This use of the skill involves making a gut assessment of the social situation. You can get the feeling from another’s behavior that something is wrong, such as when you’re talking to an impostor. Alternatively, you can get the feeling that someone is trustworthy.

By default it is DC 20 roll. If they succeed you can tell them "They seem genuine." and if thet fail you can say something like "You cannot tell whether they are genuine or just good at lying.", which would also be a standard response if they fail against Bluff.

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The most likely mage hunter organizations are possibly mages themselves, that want to keep magic exclusive. Ancient Thassilonians suppressed magical talent in these Varisians that were born with any (they used magical tattoos to do that), I can easily see the Techic League in Varisia to hunt unaffiliated mages that try to dabble in Numeria's secrets.

Other than that, practitioners of particular types of magic may be persecuted in various regions. Creating undead and demon callimg is probably outlawed in most regions, calling good outsiders is probably illegal in Cheliax etc. Some groups of crusaders, pharasmin inquisitors or hellknights may specialize in hunting mages.

www.yzzerdd.com wrote:

More difficult PAO.

Familiar is a Quasit.

PAO quasit to pit fiend.

For 1 week your familiar is a pit fiend?

PAO doesn't allow to transform into demons. It only allows the forms allowed by greater polymorph (humanoids, animals, magical beasts, elementals, dragons, plants) and objects.

Some people argue that other forms should also be allowed (some GMs also allowe it to work like vermin shape or undead anatomy or other spells that were added only after the polymorph any object was published, so they had no chance of being mentioned in CRB), but for other forms there's no clear ruling what abilities you get after transformation. For with most polymorph spells you only get some abilities of the creature you transform into, like natural attackss and such. You don't even get full physical stats, you still use your original stats, with possible modifiers from the spell. If your GM allows other forms, they need to clarify what abilities you get in the new form, especially since there is no spell like form of the outsider. And even if it did exist, a form of a pit fiend might have been outside of the rangee of PAO.

Even with a permissive GM, the quasit will still be a quasit, just in a body that looks like a body of a pit fiend. It will have its natural attacks, but most likely its physical stats will be below the stats of a true pit fiend, and it won't have any of its supernatural abilities.

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Core Rulebook, p. 183 has a table what is the default action to use various abilities, and we're supposed to use it unless the description of the ability says otherwise. In particular, using an extraordinary, supernatural or spell-like ability is usually a standard action.

The description of Knowledge skill says that Knowledge checks don't require any action at all (even a free one, which means you can do them even when you cannot take any actions). Speaking, as you say is a free action, but I believe I saw somewhere a note that it is special that it can be used during another's turn. It's worth noting thought that a GM can limit how many free actions you can take during the round; one round is supposed to be 6 seconds, and it would be realistic to limit speaking during one round to what you can actualy communicate in that time.

You can the howl being a standard action such that to have its special effect it requires more effect or something more than just speaking. So you can say that "a creature howls and alerts other creatures in the area" as a free action, but for the howl to have any extraordinary/supernatural effect, a greater effort is required.

Compare with how using a spell with only vocal component is also a standard action, even though it's also "just speaking".

My opinions:

1-a) If a swallowing creature loses the Swallow Whole ability due to a polymorph effect, or changes size in a way that it can no longer keep the swallowed creature inside, the swallowed creature is ejected outside with no additional damage to them or the swallowing creature.

1-b) The Swallow Whole rules are indifferent on whether the target of swallowing is dead or alive. However the dead body can also be considered an object. That means that it can meld with your body like your gear, or get resized with you. Melding wouldn't cause any problems, but resizing might, if in your new form you lose the Swallow Whole ability. In that case the dead body would have to be ejected upon transformation, and it would recover it's original size.

2), 3) Stomach HP is part of the creature's total HP. When a creature with damaged stomach recovers HP, naturaly or from healing, they can decide whether it heals stomach wounds or other wounds (if such exist).

4) I would say that generally no, though a GM may say that some effects that affect your whole body (and not just your skin) could improve the stomach's AC.

5) By RAW there's no limit, though it would make sense to put some limits. I'd suggest one creature one category smaller than the swallowing creature, while smaller creatures count as 1/2 of a creature one cattegory bigger. So a Huge swallowing cretaure could swallow one Large creature, 2 Medium creatures, 4 Small creatures, etc.

6) I'd say yes, until the creature is freed.

7) A helpless creature counts as having Dexterity 0, which lowers its CMD and makes escaping the stomach easier.

8) Not from outside, unless it doesn't require a line of effect to do that. Most attacks, bursts, spreads and emanations wouldn't work. But you could still try to scry on a swallowed creature, and things like that.

9) If the swallowing creature doesn't throw up the weapon on its own, killing it and opening its stomach from outside seems like the only method.

10) I'd say so, My interpreatation is that the swallowing creature doesn't need to repeat grapple checks after it swallowed a creature, but it can choose to do so and fail on purpose, which would move the swallowed creature to its mouth.

11) I don't think so, the action of stomach is automatic and unconscious.

12) No, the listed damage applies to living creatures. Remaining in the stomach for a longer time may eventualy ruin the items, but it won't happen that fast.

13) Yes, just as the rider increases the carried weight of the mount.

In additon to my last post (it's too late to edit it), a comic for illustrative purposes:

The Knight's Loaf

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blahpers wrote:
Edit: Oh, and take Master Craftsman and Craft Magic Arms and Armor so you can cook a sword.

It's called a baguette.

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NotBothered wrote:

I'd imagine it's pretty cold too.

Maybe they've avoided art with snow and ice so as not to make seem too much like Irrisen or the Land of the Linnorm Kings.

I'd rather say that colder Numeria would be more like the Realm of Mammoth Lords.

I imagine Numeria having rather dry, continental climate, with cold winters and warm summers. Looking through Köppen climate classification, I think that the climate classified as BSk (cold semi-arid) would describe it best. On Earth, you can find this is the type of climate for example on the Great Plains. Considering the lattitude, the best Earth equivalent would be probably eastern Montana. That fits the description of Numeria as land of large, windswept plains.

Yqatuba wrote:
or mean they have no sense of self-preservation.

Interesting point, the sense of self-preservation, the survival instinct, is a product of evolution. It's lack is just too big liability for most complex organisms to survive the natural selection.

However, vrocks, as other demons, are not a product of evolution. There's no evolutionary reason for them to have a sense of self-[reservation. Their instincts and psychology are what Abyss made them to be, and that may mean some very unitintuitive and unrational behavior.

I thought that if the target of the spell changes in such a way that it no longer is a valid target for the spell the spell ends. But now I think that I never seen spells that target 'willing creatures' or 'allies' work that way, so I believe you're right and the spell sticks no matter what.

But that bring another question. Let's consider someone uses elemental shape to polymorph into an fire elemental. Then they die while polymorphed. The elementals, as I imagine, do not leave a coherent body behind, with no soul to control it, their matter immediately turns into normal unanimated matter. In the case of fire elemental, the fire just disappears, unless there's some flammable stuff around. What happens to the polymorphed creature's equipment?

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