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DM Beckett wrote:I'm not sure there has ever been a religious monarchy in Golarion, where churches and faiths almost never hold any real political powers.
Roguerouge was referring to the divine right of kings, not theocracy as such. And the divine right of kings is the ruling political ideology throughout most of the Inner Sea region.
As for actual theocracies and/or church states on Golarion, currently we have Mendev, Lastwall, Nidal, Razmiran, Riverton (in the River Kingdoms), Nemret Noktoria (in Sekamina), and Po Li. Cheliax (both imperial Cheliax and modern Cheliax) may count as well, given that it formerly depended on the patronage of Aroden for its ideological legitimacy and to some extent its material reach, and today depends on Asmodeus in much the same way, but YMMV on whether this makes it a theocracy or merely strident in claiming divine right.
The divine right of kings is a belief that rulers are automatically exempt from the normal mundane laws and rules, because they are placed in power directly by one or more deities, and only those deities may remove them. It doesn't exist in Golarion or Pathfinder unless the church has the ability to remove rules from power with ease or to otherwise punish rulers. For instance, no one would say "We can't conquer Cheliax, because Asmodeus himself placed Thrune on the throne, and thus it is his will that they rule, no matter what". They might say that it's basically impossible, but probably not going to say it's because they are Asmodeus' chosen rule.
I think you, (and that article), are simply referring to legitimacy. A theocracy, on the other hand is where a single church/religion is the government, like in Nidal or Razmiran. It is not the same thing as having a large central religion(s) or religion being prominent.