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So there’s basic, all-purpose AC and then there’s touch and flat-footed.
Touch AC is for situations where your armor can’t help you, such as when the spell the enemy wizard is casting just has to touch you or something you’re wearing, so you exclude any bonus received from armor or a shield (or any bonuses from having tough skin called Natural armor, but that’s a little rarer).
Flat-footed has to do with being caught off guard so you aren’t able to use your agility to avoid being hit. It’s calculated like the all-purpose AC, except you exclude bonuses from Dexterity and Dodge (like from that combat feat you have.)
Touch AC is usually targeted by spellcasters and monsters (found in the spell or special ability description), so you probably won’t have to worry too much about it. Flat-footed comes into play any time you were not aware of your opponent before they attacked you or if you haven’t had a chance to do anything in combat yet (in other words, you haven’t reacted to the situation yet.) Of course, it works the other way too. If you catch the enemy off guard, you get to target their flat-footed AC.
From what I’m seeing above, your all-purpose AC is 18, your touch AC is 13 and your flat-footed AC is 15.
5-foot step is simple to use, but difficult to explain, because it’s movement, but it’s not a move action. A Move Action can be used to draw a weapon, move from point A to point B, pick up an item, get on a horse, or pull something out of a bag. There’s more you can do with it, but that covers the basics. A 5-foot step is a free action, you can use it on top of any other actions, but you can only use a 5-foot step if you haven’t done a point A to point B kind of move action. So you can take something out of your bag and still move 5 feet. Does that help, or just confuse you more?
Sorry, but I have no idea how locked gauntlets work, I’ve never even heard of them. I wanna say that you'd buy gauntlets as a set, like a pair of gloves, but I really have no idea.