You were well within your right to ban material that doesn't have a place in your campaign, and the player was well within his right to drop, so he can find a campaign with the content he desires. Sounds like a win-win to me.
Edit: After reading your follow up posts on the players conduct, I have one word of warning: He'll be back. Table-flipper guy always comes back....
It's just the regular white glue and would be with the other glues. Just try to get it, rather than school glue, since they are slightly different products, and the glue-all is a better fit for what you need.
Elmer's glue pancakes out and loses its bulk as it dries, making it less than ideal for filling gaps, especially large ones. And if the space is too big, the middle will be airtight and will stay wet. If you're willing to put on a few layers, it should work, but try to get Elmer's GlueAll rather than their watered down School a Glue or the fast setting, high shrinkage Carpenters Glue.
How big is the area you're trying to fill? Have you considered air dry clay or automotive Bondo?
What about it is giving you the most difficulty? Tips that come to mind immediately: Keep your fingers and your tools moist to avoid it sticking. Work it to a soft, chewing gum consistency with uniform color before applying for best effect. A spatula or pocket knife blade helps with applying it and getting it smooth. If you have to touch it with your fingers as you apply it, use some of the plastic packaging as a finger guard to avoid leaving fingerprints.
If multiple people are not having fun, and you've already made your position clear to the disruptive player and the unresponsive DM, it's time to start a new group, without either or both disruptive members. Life's too short, and gaming time too hard to come by to ruin it for the sake of one player living out his antisocial fantasies.
DMing isn't as hard as it seems. And there's only one way to start: just jump in the deep end.