Can miss chances stack?

General Discussion

If a creature has a miss chance for more than one reason, do you roll for each?

For example a Gray (20% miss due to Phase) who is invisible (50% due to total concealment) and also has cast Displacement (50% miss chance). Would you need to roll 3 miss chances, or just one at the highest miss chance?
oh, and what if there was a smoke grenade (concealment, 20% chance)?

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The displacement role is to see if you aim for the real target or not, so I'd role that first, if you are not fooled by displacement, then you are aiming at a concealed target. Not sure how Starfinder stacks concealment or not, but if your second role is able to hit the concealed target.
Then I would role for the phase. The way I look at phase it's not really a chance to miss the hit role it's more you hit and the damage doesn't have anything to connect to, so I would role that one after all the other roles.

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Concealment and total concealment don't stack, so just use a 50% miss chance roll for the combo of invisibility and a smoke grenade. Displacement also functions as total concealment, so I'm still looking at a single 50% miss chance.

Last up is the gray's phase ability. That isn't based on concealment at all.

So, as I look at it, from the four miss chance sources (invisibility, smoke grenade, displacement, and phase) you're looking at two miss chance rolls: 50% for all the various effects contributing to total concealment, then 20% for whether or not the gray is phased out of reality at the moment the attack would hit.

(For completeness I'll add that if the gray is invisible and displaced, a character would need a non-visual sense to even know that the displacement is happening. On the other hand, being invisible and displaced would help counter opponents with blindsense, as detailed in the last sentence of displacement.)

I would rule that displacement (which shows the character not in their actual location) simply wouldn't work with invisibility. Only one or the other would be effective, as invisibility would also hide the displaced images IMO.

The Gray phase ability isn't concealment, but just a miss chance. This should stack with anything else that isn't a direct miss chance (and maybe even with those).

The smoke grenade is another example of concealment, and wouldn't stack with other forms of concealment (such as invisibility).

Where/why would you use all these methods?

Well, see invisibility exists, and can negate that advantage.
True seeing will defeat displacement (and invisibility).
There might be some items that allow you to see through the smoke of a smoke grenade (I know there were items in PF1 that did so).

So the different items can be defeated by different things, and each has their own benefits. But all the forms of concealment are going to overlap rather than stack with each other so rarely would you want to use all 3 unless you had a group of enemies that each had different methods of defeating one of these kinds of abilities.

Normally you would probably just plan on using one.

End result: 1 roll at 50% miss chance (various types of concealment) and 1 roll at 20% miss chance (for Phase).

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No, a miss chance is a miss chance is a miss chance. Just use the best one.

Concealment Miss Chance
Concealment gives the target of a successful attack a chance that the attacker actually missed. This is called a miss chance. Normally, the miss chance for concealment is 20%. Make the attack normally; if the attacking creature would hit, the target must roll a 20 or lower on a d% roll (see page 513) to avoid being struck. Multiple concealment conditions do not stack.

Displacement : The target of this spell appears to be about 2 feet away from its true location. The creature benefits from a 50% miss chance as if it had total concealment

If you had total concealment your concealment chances wouldn't be stacking as per point 1.

An invisible creature hiding using displacement is like using a hologram in the dark... no one can see it in order to be fooled.

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I mean, think about it. 50% miss chance is Total Concealment, which is to say "You can't see the target at all". It can't really get worse than "You can't see them", no matter how many more "Can't see them" effects get stacked. Once you are blindly firing at a particular spot, you are blindly firing at a spot.

Note that, sure, you could try to fool the opponent about *which* spot you are at. . . but that isn't Concealment anymore. That's just making it so the opponent hasn't detected you at all, accurate sense or not. If you think an opponent is one Square X ( because of some kind of distracting noise or whatnot ), and they are actually on Square Z, that doesn't grant a worse miss chance or more miss chance rolls; it just means you waste your action shooting at a square that doesn't have anybody in it.

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