I made a Nikola Tesla inspired Wizard for a Kingmaker on the boards, but wasn't selected. Translating the real-life person to a character was kind of entertaining, though.
Other than that? Not really. At least, not beyond vague inspiration. Also, it depends on how you define 'historical.' I have a gestalt Fighter//Wizard in a Aleyssos game based on Athena, which is going pretty good, despite it being an unusual game in general.
Name/theme-wise... sorta... more comic characters than IRL. I've got a Dr. Richard J Ratling(Ratfolk Gunchemist with a Pepperbox), Richard J Gatling was the guy who invented the Gatling gun. I've got a Frank Castle(Punisher, mixed classes focused on intimidate). Erik Lehnsherr (Magneto, Metal Kineticist). T.H.O.R. as a magus with a warhammer. Vastatio, "V" for Vendetta as a Flying Blade Swashbuckler 5/Far Strike Monk 2/Vigilante X, though didn't actually level to the point of taking Vigilante. The plan was to be the alter ego of Torch since I GM-credited him through those scenarios.
Um, a Data type Android Envoy for Starfinder too.
I have a PFS character based not-very-loosely after a pro wrestler. The wrestling part of the character build was devastating in context, but she did have some severe limitations when the situation did not call for Grappling and tying up.
I named a PFS character Hester Estrella, named after Leigh Ann Hester the first woman to ever be awarded the Silver Star for individual valor, but the character was not based on her beyond the name.
I came to know of a phenomenon in the Far East that women born in the Year of the Fire Horse are considered unlucky to such a degree that it's a social problem. I created a character based on that with 1 particular woman in mind intended to make some sort of feminist statement about the problem.
I made a character who was the Once'ler from the Lorax.
In general, I found these allusions to not be intrusive on the roleplaying experience.
For my first Pathfinder game, I built a third-level beguiler based very closely on Machiavelli in his youth.
The beguiler chassis was an updated homebrew from 3.5, and I used a whole series of events from Machiavelli's life to fill out the character's backstory. I had just read a biography of Machiavelli, so it was easy to draw from that during the RP.
None of the other players realized who the character was based on...not even when he mentioned he was doing research for a book on war and the use of power. They just assumed I was really good at coming out with crazy backstory on the fly. ("The part where the fortifications were flooded during the siege? TOTALLY not my fault!")
Sadly, that campaign ended after only a couple of sessions, when the DM spilled a Big Gulp on his campaign notes and fused them into a sugary mass. (True thing.) I've always wanted to play that character in another campaign, but I'd need to read Machiavelli's biography again.