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Changing your grip by taking one hand off of a two-handed weapon is a Release Action and is a free action. Changing your grip by putting the hand back on the weapon is an Interact Action and takes one action. (The Action types are on p. 470-472, and there is a useful table of equipment-related actions on p. 273.)
So in your first example where you already have a dagger in one hand and a two-handed sword in the other...
1st Action: Throw the dagger. (Strike Action)
2nd Action: Stride. (Stride Action)
3rd Action: Change to a two-handed grip. (Interact Action)
You don't have enough time to also swing your sword.
In your second example where you already have a two-handed sword in gripped in both hands...
1st Action: Swing your sword. (Strike Action)
2nd Action: Swing your sword. (Strike Action)
*Remove your 'buckler hand' from your sword. (Release Action)
3rd Action: Raise your shield. (Raise A Shield Action)
So that works fine.