So any interest in Casmaron?


Lost Omens Campaign Setting General Discussion

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keftiu wrote:
The Raven Black wrote:
Minotaur worshipers of Asmodeus would be quite the twist.
I’d sooner see Minotaurs bumped up into player character-friendly Neutral faiths, personally, rather than just shifting the flavor of the Evil.

Aside from Hathor in Osirion, and Baphomet, are there any other cow or bull gods in Pathfinder, or who have cattle as their sacred animals? Paizo have been very good about introducing more regional variety with new gods, getting away from everywhere having some variation of the standard Inner Sea gods, and it would be really cool to see a new bull god in Casmaron who draws from Minoan bull-leapers or Anatolian and Mesapotamian sacred bulls, or the sacred cows of Hinduism, that minotaurs can revere instead of Baphomet. I know that the account of Baphomet's birth is that he was the first minotaur, created by Lamashtu, but that doesn't have to be literal truth - it can be revised to just one of many several accounts.


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Morhek wrote:
Aside from Hathor in Osirion, and Baphomet, are there any other cow or bull gods in Pathfinder, or who have cattle as their sacred animals? Paizo have been very good about introducing more regional variety with new gods, getting away from everywhere having some variation of the standard Inner Sea gods, and it would be really cool to see a new bull god in Casmaron who draws from Minoan bull-leapers or Anatolian and Mesapotamian sacred bulls, or the sacred cows of Hinduism, that minotaurs can revere instead of Baphomet. I know that the account of Baphomet's birth is that he was the first minotaur, created by Lamashtu, but that doesn't have to be literal truth - it can be revised to just one of many several accounts.

Gaelata is a Vudran god with a sacred bull avatar, but while I went looking to double-check their name, I saw that their "minotaur-priests" are indeed already canon, guarding a number of ashrams in the region, so that's promising!

I'd definitely love a Minoan stand-in - my name is an approximation of what we think the Ancient Egyptians called them, Keftiu, which is also sometimes written out as Caphtor (nobody called them Minoans in their time).

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Just sayin' with tian xia getting its book I reaffirm my stance it would really be nice if content between avistan and tian xia was also detailed ;D (also need that southern garund still)

(I'm super happy about tian xia book coming out, though I would like extra tidbits from minkai before my JR 2e conversion ends x'D)


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The metaregions almost write themselves:

1.) The Padishah Empire: the 15 autonymous satrapies of Kelesh ruled by the Padishah Empress, great and powerful and made wealthy by the trade that trickles along its roads and rivers like lifeblood, a sleeping giant restrained from conquering Avistan only by their utter apathy to anything it has to offer compared to their own riches.

2.) The Impossible Kingdoms: the hundreds of small principalities ruled by mahajanapadas under the maharajah.

3.) The Grass Sea: the terminus of the Golden Road, featuring the plains of Karazh, the only people to successfully fight the Padishah Empire and win, and the insular maritime Kaladay.

4.) The Frozen North: the lands stretching from the Iobaria to the Embaral Ocean, once part of the Koloran Empire but now inhabited by centaur tribes and marsupials, only ruins left to show of its ancient rulers.

5.) The Windswept Wastes: the once-fertile plains west of Taldor and Qadira, once home to the great empires of Ninshabur, Yenchabur and Kaskkari but long ago laid low by the rampages of the Spawn of Rovagug. Now roamed by tormented ghosts and sporadic Spawn, with the surviving city of Ezida hoping to reclaim their lost homeland.

6.) Iblydos: the archipelago where living gods walk the earth, the last of an ancient mythic tradition that has held back the monsters gnawing on the edges of civilisation, menaced by the Thalassic Behemoth Ousmariku.

From memory, Paizo employees have said it's unlikely they'll do Iblydos until they have rules firmly in place to represent mythic campaigns, but those rules could equally apply to the fabulous kingdoms of Kelesh and Vudra - these are places that put even the historical power of Taldor, Cheliax or Ancient Osirion to shame. And I'm still not sure that you can really do Kelesh justice without doing a full book on it alone. But that's some wonderful metaregion diversity that I'd love to see.


Yeah, I see Kelesh and Vudra as worthy of their own books, given they're both pretty huge and often referred to as distinct regions (not to mention they're each the origins of major human ethnicities--or families of ethnicities really--who are prevalent in the Inner Sea) with the rest of Casmaron also big enough to deserve its own. Although figuring out a way to structure that could be tricky since Iblydos is right by Kelesh but not part of it; maybe it could be a "bonus" in a Kelesh book like Bhopan was in Impossible Lands, but I don't know.

On that note, Vudra also has its own meta-regions as presented in its adventure path article: The Cradle, Crying Jungle, Divine Garden, Falling Mountains, Golden Basin, Narhari Desert, Open Bridge, Western Ghats (also a real place in India lol), and the Wide Water.

I feel like Kaladay wouldn't be in the same meta-region as the Grass Sea though, since it's not inland. Maybe a seventh one for the eastern part of the continent containing Kaladay and the as-of-yet-undescribed peninsula in the southeast?

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I feel need to ponder about existence of prep work to do before casmaron book can be realized for mysterious reasons totally not related to bumping the thread x'D

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Morhek wrote:

Voradni Voon used a portal gate to transport an entire army to the Isle of Kortos - was that the only place that gate led to, and were those people the only force Voon had to call on? Maybe Voon was conquering across the region, and Absalom was just his last and most ambitious strike?

I've been reviewing this thread recently for... reasons, and I wanted to chime in here and say that Voradni Voon was active in south-central Casmaron, where he threw down several cities before venturing to the Isle of Kortos. If we ever get to developing Casmaron in a serious way, it would be fun to delve into this a bit. Centaurs are of course prevalent throughout Casmaron, but I can confirm that minotaurs also exist far from Iblydos.


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So much tease!!!

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Man that's some lovely teasing :'D

Oh hey come to think about it, minotaur lore has gotten changed since post OGL Babhomet is more irl Babhomet(granted I doubt they are making Babhomet intersex) and less D&D "minotaurs demon lord" Babhomet. While that has questions regarding existence of ivory labyrinth, it does mean that minotaurs officially can't have THAT kind of connection with babhomet hmm

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Doesn't matter, Baphomet's dead.

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Nah, he didn't actually canonically die from wrath of the righteous ap hence why he has 2e deity stats and lore


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I think it would behoove Paizo to not use Baphomet going forward, because some people's WotR games made a point of ending Baphomet forever since that was like an option left on the table by the AP.

You're unlikely to ever run out of demon lords, and it's bad form to "correct" people's stories.

Like anything Paizo did that involved Baphomet, I would feel the need to retrofit to involve someone else since as far as I'm concerned Baphomet is dead dead dead.

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PossibleCabbage wrote:

I think it would behoove Paizo to not use Baphomet going forward, because some people's WotR games made a point of ending Baphomet forever since that was like an option left on the table by the AP.

You're unlikely to ever run out of demon lords, and it's bad form to "correct" people's stories.

Like anything Paizo did that involved Baphomet, I would feel the need to retrofit to involve someone else since as far as I'm concerned Baphomet is dead dead dead.

I understand the feeling. But Paizo just cannot account for all the possible outcomes of all their APs.

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that and the thing is that wrath of the righteous as written doesn't assume Babhomet is going to be killed

AP as written assumes that Babhomet is this impossibly hard encounter that players and if they do "wow give them straight up mythic tier because thats impressive"

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Spent most of the day tracking Casmaron lore yesterday, as a bit of a reward for myself after months of ceaseless packing so I can send most of my stuff across the country in anticipation of a big move.

One of the things holding us back from more intense development on Casmaron (other than the issue that we have lots of other stuff we want to do that is further along) is that we don’t really have a proper map for it even within Paizo. Casmaron has always been a “we’ll get to it later” sort of place to date, and with that being the case it has actually been quite helpful for development purposes to have large swaths of “blank slate” to allow for future development.

The “vast” desert known as the Parchlands, for example, plays a fairly important though minor role in the Steange Aeons adventure path, but it never existed in anyone’s conception of the continent. That’s great for “I need a desert over here” kind of development, but years later fitting something like this into the map is a bit of a puzzle.

Add to that the fact that tidbits are, almost 20 years after we made it up, spread out over tons of sources and are often fairly small contributions in nature, and things can get a bit murky. Then there are treasure-troves of information like Qadira: Jewel of the East and Distant Shores, which drop all kinds of info and implications but provide nothing helpful in the way of actual maps, and you’ve got a bit of a puzzle.

Fortunately, I like puzzles.

So I’m finally, at long long last, working on a proper Casmaron map. This IS NOT for a project we are currently working on (though a bit of Casmaron writing _is_ on my docket this month), but such a tool IS a requirement for future development.

For an “undetailed” continent, there really is a great deal of content, and until we do this the risk of stepping on each other’s toes grows more and more significant.

A couple of observations:

1) I think it’s possible to identify or extrapolate _most_ of Kelesh’s satrapies, largely from the ethnicity and religion sections of the aforementioned Qadira book.

2) I’d eventually like to do some draft maps by age, because Casmaron’s history is _DEEP_, and involves lots of interesting ancient cultures. It is broadly also more heavily influenced by ancient history thematically than Medieval or early modern history, which I personally find very exciting.

3) I’d really like to spend some time soon staking out the Iblydos side of this. The setting would really benefit from a Minoan Crete analog that could speak to stuff like Mycenae and add some depth to the history of Kelesh along the continent’s southern coast. My current take is that some of those early coastal Keleshite satrapies were probably originally tied up with this earlier pre-Greek “Minoan” culture. I wonder in particular about spots like Midea, Mishyria, and the original lands of the Aishmayar cities. Lots of opportunity here.

3) The jungle land of Khattib, sandwiched between Midea/Kelesh and Vudra, is very ripe for additional development. I think there’s room for some jungle trimming along the northwest coast of this area on the big world map to create some room for some riffs on Canaan and the Sea Peoples cultures of the Bronze Age Collapse era of our own history. Still kind of noodling this, but the potential is there.

4) When you start mapping this to that giant (low-detail) Golarion map, the Grass Sea and Karazh is very centrally located on the continent, leaving HUGE swaths of eastern Casmaron entirely blank except for a lightly penciled word “Kaladay” over it. The same is definitely true of the region north and northeast of the Castrovin sea. Not ALL of the nations of Casmaron should riff on real human ancient cultures, and there is a TON of room on the existing map for purely creative “original” kingdoms, which I find quite exciting.

I’ll be tinkering with this for a long time.

Much to consider….


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Given my handle on here (Keftiu was an Ancient Egyptian name for Minoan Crete), I’m a big fan of pretty much everything above :)

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its kinda funny in that it does demonstrate one of reasons I've really wanted Casmaron details :'D Because of the whole "its super important location between two detailed locations" means more time passes, more likely it is that there is tangle of small details that conflict each other and need to get untangled


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Erik Mona wrote:
1) I think it’s possible to identify or extrapolate _most_ of Kelesh’s satrapies, largely from the ethnicity and religion sections of the aforementioned Qadira book.

I tried my own hand a while ago, trying to use up space for what is meant to parallel Achaemenid Persia, the largest empire that lasted more than a single lifetime before the Arabs and Mongols. And in that empire was an incredible amount of diversity, and a surprisingly light imperial hand compared to some regimes. The only thing that really stopped its eastern expansion was Imperial China, the Hindu Kush and the Himalayas, and in the west the annoying stubbornness of the Greeks, and Kelesh has similar imperial ambitions but with less militancy - it's more willing to play the long game and use diplomacy and trade to achieve what force of arms could. But I think mine radically overstates the empire's size - my version had it stretch all along Vudra's northern border to the peninsula to its east, which in hindsight I would make Kaladay instead. Most of the east is entirely speculative, though I'm glad Khattib and Midea sound like they're where I thought they would be.

Erik Mona wrote:
3) I’d really like to spend some time soon staking out the Iblydos side of this. The setting would really benefit from a Minoan Crete analog that could speak to stuff like Mycenae and add some depth to the history of Kelesh along the continent’s southern coast. My current take is that some of those early coastal Keleshite satrapies were probably originally tied up with this earlier pre-Greek “Minoan” culture. I wonder in particular about spots like Midea, Mishyria, and the original lands of the Aishmayar cities. Lots of opportunity here.

It would be interesting to know just how large the Koloran Empire was, since it left a similarly Mediterranean-esque archaeological footprint across northern Casmaron and elsewhere, and would have to have encircled ancient Ninshabur for Iblydos to be its last toehold (if, as some sources suggest, Ninshabur weathered Earthfall). Then again, the humans had to come from somewhere too - were they prehistoric Keleshite immigrants from the continent, maybe already influenced by neighbouring Cyclopean culture, or Azlanti fleeing Earthfall? Existing lore suggests they were already present before Earthfall happened, forewarned by the cyclopes. And it would be a shame to tie yet another region to the distant legacy of Azlant.

Erik Mona wrote:
3) The jungle land of Khattib, sandwiched between Midea/Kelesh and Vudra, is very ripe for additional development. I think there’s room for some jungle trimming along the northwest coast of this area on the big world map to create some room for some riffs on Canaan and the Sea Peoples cultures of the Bronze Age Collapse era of our own history. Still kind of noodling this, but the potential is there.

I would adore this. The Late Bronze Age was a really cool time to draw inspiration from, with Canaanites plying the waters to eventually become the Phoenicians, Hittite charioteers rolling across the plains, the nascent powers of Assyria and Elam, the ancient might of Sumeria, and not too far from the Mycenaeans and Luwians warring over Troy. You mentioned earlier Voradni Voon, and now the Sea Peoples - it would be really neat to see where Voon drew his armies from, what drove them to join him, and what existed before Voon levelled it in pillage and plunder. The real-life Sea Peoples were probably (mostly) victims of climate change, famine, political collapse and economic poverty, and their military reputation may have been exaggerated by surviving sources. Was Voon actually the tyrant Absalom's history claims he was? Whatever happened, we know that Voon's army settled down in Kortos to make it their new home, living uneasily alongside their human neighbours.

The only flaw for me is that Ancient Osirion is too far away to similarly stick its beak in their business like Egypt did that area, barring some previously undescribed imperial adventures across the Obari Ocean - which, given the fabulous riches and god-emperor power of Ancient Osirion, is not impossible but would be hard to align with their supposed decline. The only reference I could find to Ancient Osirion fighting a Casmaron power before Qadira invaded it was when the pre-Taldaris princely states around Oppara and Late First Age Ancient Osirion (presumably independently) checked the western expansionism of Ninshabur, which happened around the -1500s AR, around the time Ancient Osirion was ALSO worried about the Shory.


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I want it. IWantItIWantItIWantIt. :D

Also, @Erik Mona: Hells yes to map making. Excited to incorporate it into the interactive map sometime in the future. Also I can definitely shift my wiki work over to trying to find every scrape of Casmaroon lore and at least making sure at the bottom of the relevant pages is the full list of every book that's a reasonable source, even if all the info from them isn't fully on the page yet. In general it's been frequently my mindset to prioritize grabbing a couple lines from every source I can find over grabbing every bit of info from that. My thinking is that it might help people to know every book to look in for situations like this, so I can do that to a lot more pages faster.

Wouldn't mind if this is a half-decent excuse for getting feedback from you on if this thinking makes sense for when Paizo devs use the wiki for reference.


Morhek wrote:
Erik Mona wrote:
1) I think it’s possible to identify or extrapolate _most_ of Kelesh’s satrapies, largely from the ethnicity and religion sections of the aforementioned Qadira book.
I tried my own hand a while ago, trying to use up space for what is meant to parallel Achaemenid Persia, the largest empire that lasted more than a single lifetime before the Arabs and Mongols. And in that empire was an incredible amount of diversity, and a surprisingly light imperial hand compared to some regimes. The only thing that really stopped its eastern expansion was Imperial China, the Hindu Kush and the Himalayas, and in the west the annoying stubbornness of the Greeks, and Kelesh has similar imperial ambitions but with less militancy - it's more willing to play the long game and use diplomacy and trade to achieve what force of arms could. But I think mine radically overstates the empire's size - my version had it stretch all along Vudra's northern border to the peninsula to its east, which in hindsight I would make Kaladay instead. Most of the east is entirely speculative, though I'm glad Khattib and Midea sound like they're where I thought they would be.

Yeah, my guess is it probably mostly stops west of Vudra. Also the Amai Birtim wouldn't have a satrapy as they're nearly extinct; I'd put Karazh around that area and the Tzorehiyi in the Whistling Plains. The region you've marked as Ayyarad is probably at least partially taken up by the Parchlands as well. Aside from that, this pretty much matches my guesses about what goes where in Casmaron though.


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VestOfHolding wrote:

I want it. IWantItIWantItIWantIt. :D

Also, @Erik Mona: Hells yes to map making. Excited to incorporate it into the interactive map sometime in the future. Also I can definitely shift my wiki work over to trying to find every scrape of Casmaroon lore and at least making sure at the bottom of the relevant pages is the full list of every book that's a reasonable source, even if all the info from them isn't fully on the page yet. In general it's been frequently my mindset to prioritize grabbing a couple lines from every source I can find over grabbing every bit of info from that. My thinking is that it might help people to know every book to look in for situations like this, so I can do that to a lot more pages faster.

Wouldn't mind if this is a half-decent excuse for getting feedback from you on if this thinking makes sense for when Paizo devs use the wiki for reference.

To this end, I've added a Casmaron navbox to the wiki and relevant pages, as well as adding more references to many of the pages.


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The more I think about it, the more I love the idea that southern Casmaron has equivalents to pre-Hellenistic Anatolia. When I came to write my own version of Iblydos for myself, I thought it was important to represent that somewhere, and decided one of the islands had been annexed as part of a neighbouring satrapy, but I think a much better way would be if those neighbouring satrapies themselves were more Hellenic. If nothing else, because I can't see the Hero-Gods standing for one of their islands being wrested from their sociopolitical grasp, no matter how determined Kelesh's attempt, unless it was done during the confusion of Liachora's devastation by Ousmariku and subsequent tightening of the treasuries' belts from his annual tributes. Come to think of it, though, the wider empire was thoroughly distracted by a civil war between 4067-79 AR, allowing Qadira the freedom to pick a fight with Taldor that became the 500 year long Grand Campaign/Ghevran Victories. I wonder what was happening during those 12 years...

Midea and Khattib were their own independent kingdoms while Iblydos was still a squabbling bunch of city-states, and Khattibi history goes back to before Earthfall, so it's absolutely appropriate that Iblydos and its neighbouring satrapies would share cultural commonalities, like the Greeks did with the Phrygians and Lycians who were absorbed by Persia, or even the Phoenicians. We also know that shipping along the southern coast is a major trade link along the Casmaron line of the Golden Road, which increases the relevance of the Phoenicians as a comparison. It also makes Kelesh a more diverse place - I realised that I'd fallen into the trap of thinking of Kelesh as little more than Qadira But Bigger, but that is reductive and really doesn't capture the cultural diversity of the Padishah Empire, and expanding from just Fantasy Persia really gives you room to build on and differentiate all those regions.

And like Athens supporting the Ionians' revolts, having culturally simular neighbours leaves the possibility eventually of Iblydos picking a fight with Kelesh, and if it ever united (which an invasion by Kelesh might help accomplish) pulling an Alexander the Good At Fighting, Bad At Ruling and taking those territories off the much bigger and wealthier empire. What does Golarion look like if the Padishah Empire collapsed, either conquered by someone else, split into chunks, or Balkanising into feuding principalities? What would Qadira's reaction be? Taldors? Vudra's?

The Obari ocean is dangerous, but apparently not dangerous enough to deter merchants who don't like the thought of Kelesh's internal tariffs, and although you have to go through Iblydos to get to it Khattib controls the cities that rim Khardaji Bay. Kelesh also seems to border the large inland Castrovin Sea, so some maritime satrapies don't even have to border the Obari ocean - although the horselords of Karazh separate the Padishah Empire and Kaladay by land, one of the few things we know about Kaladay is that it's a nation of sailors, and that doesn't limit it just to the Embaral Ocean - the Castrovin is likely a thriving trade hub too. The Susianams were also a maritime people before their homeland was destroyed, and if they were a people who bordered the Castrovin sea too close to the former lands of Ninshabur, a Spawn of Rovagug being responsible for that might make some sense.

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Let's check in with one of my favorite threads.

Since the last time I posted here in July, I've moved myself and all my stuff across the country from Seattle to Minneapolis. I've had my Casmaron map and notes with me the whole time, and have been doodling, note-taking, and thinking about it all along.

A few weeks ago, when I finally found and unpacked the right boxes, I started delving into this again more seriously, especially leading up to and following my small Casmaron-related freelance chunk for an upcoming Paizo project, which I turned in about a month ago.

I wanted to check in and offer a few updates on where my head's at and where things are going.

For starters, we're leaning very heavily on the ancient world for cultural parallels and inspiration. This means not just a general embrace of the Persian elements of the Kelesh heartland, but also a look at the various cultures absorbed by and incorporated by it over the millennia.

That last word carries a LOT of weight in this part of the world, because we're talking about almost 10,000 years of things happening, with frankly a lot of what we know (or what is implied) taking place during the Age of Legends, without a specific year rooting it to part of recorded history. Even though it feels like I have made a ton of progress connecting dots, seeking out obscure references, and so on, it's VERY MUCH an evolving picture, drawn for now in fairly broad stereotypes to make sure that the cultures and enthography make sense, particularly when it comes to human ethnicities.

So we know a lot of "right now" place names (Zelshabbar, Ayyarad, Khattib) and the Qadira book gives a lot of hints about how it might all fit together, but some stuff I feel like I am starting to "know" is more general than specific for now, or rooted in Golarion's ancient past and thus more foundational than anything that sheds a ton of light upon the current situation.

For example, I'm very much in favor of converting the mainland coast east of Iblydos from the northern jungles of Khattib (as suggested by the crude world map) to more of a stand-in for Canaan, Phoenicia, and the Levant. So there should be non-Khattibi and non-"Greek" humans there, and it's important to figure out where they come from before we figure out "the deal" with the modern incarnation of those states. So right now that place is called "Canaan Coast," and as we continue to layer on detail and extrapolate throughout the _long_ history of the region, the specific details will become more clear.

Incidentally, I've currently got the mountain region east of that coast as an expy for the ancient Hittites, but we'll see how it all lands on the other side of the process.

I can confirm that those southern jungles ARE Khattib, and thus the southeastern extent of Kelesh rubs right up against Vudra. I'm also placing the original homeland of the susianams on one of the islands off the coast of Khattib proper--it seems obvious that these folks worship Oathos, who is also said to be worshipped in Khattib.

My current take on Midea is somewhat different than Morhek's, from the map posted a few comments up. With Khattib in the southeast jungles and "Canaan Coast" to the immediate east, I see that south central coast of Kelesh being the most likely spot for Midea and Mishyria, which I see as colonies of "Ancient Iblydos" (think Minoan Crete) who eventually grew into their own Mycenae sort of situation before eventually being conqured by and absorbed into Kelesh proper. I don't think it was the author's original intent, but the "Aishmayar culture" that originally inhabited this region (and founded Katheer even further west) probably _is_ this Mycenae-type Hellenic culture.

I liked the idea suggested in this thread that the Tzorehiyi inhabit the Whistling Plains, which I'm putting east of Galt and Taldor, on the other side of the mountains from the Windswept Wastes and the ruins of Ninshabur. So we're gonna do that. That also gets them out of the Grass Sea so they cam be distinct from the kara people (to whom they are related), which is probably for the best. It also adds a little interest to the "between maps" part of Taldor's Eastern frontier, which is certainly in the best interest of that nation, which can use more interesting places to adventure and more adventure hooks in general.

Incidentally, did you know that a bunch of emigrating Galtan nobles virtually run one of the most important cities in Iobaria? I thought that was pretty cool!

Anyway, still lots do develop, lots of dots to connect, and lots of revisions up ahead, but I wanted to swing by and thank everyone on this thread again for your interest and enthusiasm. :)


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Stupendous stuff, Erik! I'm there day one for a Casmaron book, whenever it comes.

Is there any hope of those faux-Cretans being mixed up with our imminently-playable Minotaur friends? I'm a big fan of all things Minoan, as my username might hint at.


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Erik Mona wrote:
Incidentally, I've currently got the mountain region east of that coast as an expy for the ancient Hittites, but we'll see how it all lands on the other side of the process.

Interesting, on my own map I bundled the Hittite-equivalents, which I assumed to be the Kaskkari (given the real-life association of the Kaska), in where I assumed Ninshabur and Yenchabur would be, since it's described as being on the western shores of the Castrovin Sea.

Given where you're locating Kelesh's equivalent, and knowing where Voradni Voon was active, the idea that the Kaskkari were laid low, not by the Spawn of Rovagug, but very recently by the minotaur warlord, hadn't occurred to me. And we only know that Yenchabur was destroyed by "a firestorm," as the backstory of the River Kingdoms. That would be an interesting plot bunny to work with too.

I'll also second the request for more minotaurs! Bulls are a very important part of the Near East - the Minoans leapt over them, the Egyptians worshipped them, the Greeks and Phoenicians sacrificed them, and even the Zoroastrian Persians believe the world was created by the slaughter of a great primeval cow. Combined with the lingering impact of Voon's marauding and sudden disappearance, it's all very ripe to flesh out a civilisation of minotaurs, especially to make them different from the Forgotten Realms-esque origin with Baphomet that 1e adapted.

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Yep yep. Minotaurs are in the bullseye of stuff we’re talking about, and will be very tied into the Iblydos/Aishmayar stuff. I’ve been going through all the Bestiaries and making notes of what creatures might fit where.


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Something too that could fit here is the discovery of concrete like substances discovered or super enhanced by lightning (or super magical lightning) striking stones composed of the bones of long dead creatures crushed by great pressure (maybe something magical instead of the ocean or just the ocean is magical enough for me). That these super hard stones can then be ground and mixed with water to create impossible shapes for stone could be incredibly cool for the basis of some really weird/magical architecture and that whole societies of priests and engineers/masons would gain political power around it is ripe for fantasy stories. This is also the right place for it.


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Hey Erik, while you are looking at Casmaron, please don’t forget the Panotti. The Panotti first appeared in Murders Mark with details on page 29. I have been hoping to see them developed as a full ancestry ever since. Panotti have a long history in Casmaron and it is rumored that they come from a kingdom that was cursed, although this is denied by Panotti. The Panotti are humanoid in appearance but have extraordinarily large elephantine ears. These ear appendages allow a Panotti to glide and potentially even fly. Their ear appendages can also be used like insulated garments providing protection against the cold. Panotti are generally reclusive as a people, but they are fond of sharing their music and storytelling traditions with receptive individuals. The art for the Panotti in 1E made me fall in love with this Ancestry. The art portrays them with hints of elephant-like features without looking like elephants and giving them a look that is unique and interesting. The Panotti are inspired from real world mythology, appearing in “Natural History” by Pliny the Elder. In Golarion, they are hinted at as once having a powerful kingdom/homeland that fell under a curse. While they are largely found in Casmaron, there is a population in Tian Xia. We know little about the Casmaron Panotti, and virtually nothing about the Tian Xia Panotti. The Panotti have enough motor control of their large ears to use them like wings or wrap them around their bodies. The Panotti have a mysterious past, but appear to have a long history in Casmaron.

I suspect the Panotti are more closely tied to Vudra than other parts of Casmaron. And there is a very real possibility that the Panotti have a strong connection to the goddess Likha (see Impossible Lands pg. 315). Also, in my head I see the Panotti as having cultural traditions akin to the Jaipur Elephant Festival in India. Except instead of painting elephants, the Panotti paint themselves in vibrant colors and beautiful patterns. And during festival times, the Panotti who are normally insular, open up to their neighbors, inviting them to witness the elegant dances and aerial displays of the Panotti. Hopefully this is helpful.


So I didn't think I could be interested in Casmaron, having been turned off when I saw "100 mahajanapadas and 1000 gods" for Vudra and deemed it excessive. I must say though, this thread (and of course Erik Mona) makes some persuasive arguements. It'd be nice I think to eventually have some Lost Omens book about it, to expand and shine some light on the region like Tian Xian is. Though of course it has some steep competition, as there even still parts of Garund and Avistan that could use the attention. Nevertheless, this is exciting! Hope to one day see more in some release. With Mythic Rules announced for War of Immortals, it's not entirely unreasonable to think that will be the case someday.


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Don't mind me, just a quick post because this thread is damn cool and want it to show up in my profile so I can check back in on it in the future.

Paizo Employee Chief Creative Officer, Publisher

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Brinebeast wrote:
Hey Erik, while you are looking at Casmaron, please don’t forget the Panotti.

I haven't figured out how they fit in just yet (need to re-read that old module, for starters!), but thanks to this thread I have flagged them for further investigation. Really appreciate folks finding little references like this. It is extremely helpful!

Paizo Employee Chief Creative Officer, Publisher

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BookBird wrote:
So I didn't think I could be interested in Casmaron, having been turned off when I saw "100 mahajanapadas and 1000 gods" for Vudra and deemed it excessive. I must say though, this thread (and of course Erik Mona) makes some persuasive arguements. It'd be nice I think to eventually have some Lost Omens book about it, to expand and shine some light on the region like Tian Xian is. Though of course it has some steep competition, as there even still parts of Garund and Avistan that could use the attention. Nevertheless, this is exciting! Hope to one day see more in some release. With Mythic Rules announced for War of Immortals, it's not entirely unreasonable to think that will be the case someday.

I appreciate the sentiment!

Also I want to make really really clear that we have NO Casmaron Lost Omens book in development, and my current project is more an attempt to gather all of the lore we have already leaked out and try to make sure that it fits to a cohesive plan, so that when we finally DO schedule a Casmaron book, that critical research phase will have already been completed.

Until that happens, it's frankly impossible to slate a book like this in, because the pre-work is just too intense. Frankly, this is the kind of info-gathering/connection-making task that I enjoy working on in my free time, so as the person who invented most of Casmaron originally and the person who has been loosely tracking its development from the beginning, it makes sense for me to take the lead on gathering what we already know.

Now, that's not to say there is an infinite timeline before we actually use some of this stuff. This sort of framework also makes "drop-in" adventures, scenarios, and other development a lot more possible, because it'll be less likely to get some obscure fact wrong, or close some door we'd prefer to leave open for future development (and so on).

As I said above, this project kicked into high gear for a short piece I wrote for a book that will be coming out in 2024, and there will be a substantial use for it in 2025, about which I am sure you will be hearing a great deal in short oder. :)

Dark Archive

Pathfinder Starfinder Roleplaying Game Subscriber

It is nice to see Casmaron thread being active AND useful :D

(currently trying to remind myself of all mentions of Casmaron in actual adventures)

Edit: while re reading did notice Strange Aeons indeed being mentioned x'D Was too late to edit that out though

Paizo Employee Chief Creative Officer, Publisher

I'd love some discussion of the Parchlands here!

Dark Archive

Pathfinder Starfinder Roleplaying Game Subscriber

I have weird feeling I had one super specific casmaron reference in mind, but I can't remember if I imagined it, it got already mentioned or it was something like "obscure description of treasure or room description with reference to Casmaron"(kinda like how there is random statuette of "vudranese death goddess" in jade regent) x'D I'm super distracted until I figure this out

Also since I think it didn't get mentioned, on more recent(aka 2e) Casmaron news, I really liked Somnalu article in monsters of myth.

(parchlands would be fun to discuss, but since it doesn't have article in Strange Aeons most of things to discuss would be more or less ap volume spoilers. I'm also not sure on top of my head if entire desert is kinda a cursed eldritch place or just the area around Neruzavin)

Dark Archive

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I probably have to give up on remembering what I might have been thinking about(assuming my sleep deprivation isn't causing problems and I just forgot I was thinking of how cool Somnalu is or even Parchedlands ;P) but I did realize that monster ecology articles are one additional source for obscure lore that nobody would think to check.

Like I was checking if strange aeons had Casmaron mentions because it did have lot of obscure lore references, and I stumped upon this

"Most scholars of Golarion suspect the first cephalophores were constructed during the height of the ancient city of Ninshabur in present-day Casmaron, whose inf luence extended as far west as Ancient Osirion and present-day Taldor. These scholars also posit that the cephalophores were made in an attempt by the Ninshaburians to emulate the living monoliths of Osirion, with whom Ninshaburian phalanxes were likely to have come into contact. The Ninshaburian origins of the cephalophores are evidenced by both their appearance and their geographic locations"

I'm not gonna post entire article from "Beyond the Doomsday Door", but it goes a LOT into this possible Ninshaburian/cephalophores/osirian connection". Regardless of whether this is canon or not, this is probably most interesting tidbit article claims:

"Rock carvings found in the abandoned temple complex of Tabsagal indicate that the characteristic decollation of cephalophores was tied to a ritual wherein highly venerated holy warriors (akin to present-day paladins or clerics) were offered near-immortality in exchange for their service to Ninshabur. The majority of the ritual seems to have consisted of oath-taking, wherein the terms of the heroes’ guardianship were made clear. However, to seal the pact, these warriors were then required to offer their own heads in homage to their ancient gods. After their beheading, the soldiers’ bodies rapidly turned to stone, and they were then moved to their eternal resting places as guardians of Ninshabur’s holiest sites."

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Personal side note: while there's a lot from my homebrew in the Inner Sea region, the Parchlands are the only export I made from my homebrew to Casmaron.

Spoiler:
In my homebrew, they're a centrally-located desert with a crater created by an errant fragment of Azathoth that smashed down, meteor style, to make a crater that has slowly been leaching out the nutrients of the massive mountain-surrounded region to turn it into a desert that gets increasingly cosmic-horror the deeper into it you go, so it made sense to bring it in for Strange Aeons while I was doing the initial work on creating the outline for the Adventure Path, but then I shifted focus over to the Curse of the Crimson Throne hardcover and handed the reigns over to Adam Daigle and eventually John Compton, so they're the ones to thank for how awesome that fifth adventure finally turned out!)

So... yeah! More Parchlands stuff! :)


Pathfinder Roleplaying Game Superscriber; Pathfinder Starfinder Adventure Path, Starfinder Roleplaying Game, Starfinder Society Subscriber

Parchlands - So I have been learning about the Parchlands and they are very interesting! I love the cosmic horror elements, it's super fun to explore those themes in areas and places outside of more traditional lovecraftian settings. I can't quite figure out where on the map the are located, but hopefully a future Casmaron map will clarify.

Paizo Employee Chief Creative Officer, Publisher

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I've currently placed them northeast of Qadira, which makes a bit more sense once you see some edits I've made to the mountain ranges around there. Imagine a wall of mountains to the east of Qadira, with an opening to the south which leads to "Mishyria" and "Midea," which take up the coastal lands to about the point where Kardaji Bay dips to the south. The Parchlands are north of "Mishyria", and are themselves surrounded by mountains. East of the eastern mountains are the lands of the Windswept Wastes (Ninshabur, etc.), which extend east all the way to the Castrovin Sea.


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Brinebeast wrote:
Parchlands - So I have been learning about the Parchlands and they are very interesting! I love the cosmic horror elements, it's super fun to explore those themes in areas and places outside of more traditional lovecraftian settings. I can't quite figure out where on the map the are located, but hopefully a future Casmaron map will clarify.

"

I'm excited to see some cosmic horror centered around deserts from a non-Eurocentric lens. The Madlad Alhazred has always been very orientalist in the BEST of contexts, so this could be a cool way to recontextualize some of those elements of the staples of cosmic horror lore and also just flat out make new stuff.


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It's interesting to me to see the heavy Aberration theming in many parts of Casmaron, as those are usually more of an outlier in other parts of Golarion. The Pit of Gormuz is an obvious link of course, as well as the Lovecraftian influence shown in Strange Aeons. Monsters of Myth in particular seeded some pretty good ideas for stuff around entities like Kuthogaz (I hope I remember his name correctly). Real curious what sort of adventures such snippets of Casmaron could provide, on a smaller scale. Can easily some solitary plot going to a place there for a spell.

Must admit, very cool to get some insight in how the process of putting everything on a map is done. Makes you think how it originally happened for places we know as well, like Avistan or Garund. Casmaron in particular has some sweet implications here with how old it is, and how that history influences its present division. Many places in Golarion take inspiration from the real world, and having this show analogues to some of the oldest is something I hadn't thought much about before for some reason. Must be one hell of a timeline though to organise it all though! I should probably pick up that Qadira book soon, I've been slowly catching up on 1e lorebooks.


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Erik Mona wrote:

Also I want to make really really clear that we have NO Casmaron Lost Omens book in development, and my current project is more an attempt to gather all of the lore we have already leaked out and try to make sure that it fits to a cohesive plan, so that when we finally DO schedule a Casmaron book, that critical research phase will have already been completed.

Until that happens, it's frankly impossible to slate a book like this in, because the pre-work is just too intense. Frankly, this is the kind of info-gathering/connection-making task that I enjoy working on in my free time, so as the person who invented most of Casmaron originally and the person who has been loosely tracking its development from the beginning, it makes sense for me to take the lead on gathering what we already know.

Just wanted to chime in and thank you for this tidbit of how these books are created. Learning more about your processes is always fascinating.


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So I probably went a little overboard, but I decided to keyword search the term “Casmaron” across every Pathfinder source I have. Below are the results. For clarity, I did not include those references that include “Casmaron” as part of a Glossary & Index, and in no way is this a complete list, but it does cover a lot of sources. My biggest blind spot is first edition Pathfinder Society adventures as I only have a handful of those.

I also intend to make follow up posts highlighting some of the things that caught my attention, and may be an obscure or overlooked reference.

In no particular order...

Searching for Casmaron:

Pathfinder Chronicles: Campaign Setting
Pathfinder Chronicles: Campaign Setting p. 23 - Summary: There are Garundi communities on the wide steppes of Casmaron.
Pathfinder Chronicles: Campaign Setting p. 24 - Summary: The Diamond Sultanates of the Kelesh Empire cover vast areas of land east of Qadira and into central Casmaron. A love of horses, music, and learning is common across the Sultanates.
Pathfinder Chronicles: Campaign Setting p. 24 - Summary: Some Kelshite names are influenced by cultures from Casmaron’s interior.
Pathfinder Chronicles: Campaign Setting p. 167 - Summary: Sometimes, Rovagug stirs in their prison, releasing a Spawn of Rovagug.
Pathfinder Chronicles: Campaign Setting p. 201 - Summary: The Pit of Gormuz opened in the Year -3923
Pathfinder Chronicles: Campaign Setting p. 240 - Summary: The North Track trade route connects to trading routes that run deep into Casmaron.
Pathfinder Chronicles: Campaign Setting p. 240 - Summary: The World’s Edge Mountains hinders much of Taldor’s overland trade with Casmaron.

Inner Sea World Guide
Inner Sea World Guide p. 15 - Summary: The Diamond Sultanates are to the East of the Inner Sea on Casmaron. Keleshite names are influenced by the cultures found on Casmaron.
Inner Sea World Guide p. 32 - Summary: Casmaron and Garund are separated by the Obari Ocean.
Inner Sea World Guide p. 34 - Summary: In the Year 3923 the Pit of Gormuz opens for the first time unleashing the spawn of Rovagug into Casmaron.
Inner Sea World Guide p. 150 - Summary: Adalan IV approved the conquest of Qadira.
Inner Sea World Guide p. 202 - Summary: Casmaron is a continent on Golarion.
Inner Sea World Guide p. 203-206 - Summary: Article discussing Casmaron. Major subsections include: Padishah Empire of Kelesh, Windswept Wastes, Iobaria, Ninshabur, and Vudra.
Inner Sea World Guide p. 210 - Summary: In northern Casmaron, Cyclopes once ruled a large expanse of territory.
Inner Sea World Guide p. 225 - When Rovagug stirs a Spawn of Rovagug may emerge from the Pit of Gormuz in Casmaron.
Inner Sea World Guide p. 252 - Summary: The Obari Crossing is a trade route that moves goods from Katapesh, Kelesh, Iblydos, and Vudra.

Lost Omens World Guide
Lost Omens World Guide p. 6 - Summary: In the Year 3923 the Pit of Gormuz opens for the first time unleashing the spawn of Rovagug into Casmaron.
Lost Omens World Guide p. 7 - Summary: Casmaron includes places such as the Castrovin Sea, Kelesh Empire, the Impossible Kingdoms of Vudra, Iblydos, Kaladay, the Grass Sea, and the ruins of nations like Iobaria and Ninshabur.
Lost Omens World Guide p. 14 - Summary: Voradni Voon, a minotaur warlord conquered central Casmaron, then attempted to take over Absalom.
Lost Omens World Guide p. 20 - Summary: The Scrape is the area where Voradni Voon’s forces from Casmaron were defeated on the Isle of Kortos.
Lost Omens World Guide p. 54 - Summary: Qadira is the gateway to Casmaron trade routes.
Lost Omens World Guide p. 57 - Summary: The Padishah Empire of Kelesh is in control of a large portion of Casmaron.
Lost Omens World Guide p. 74 - Summary: Jalmeray serves as a gateway to western Casmaron and especially Vudra.
Lost Omens World Guide p. 79 - Summary: Jalmeray exports the teachings of the Houses of Perfection to Casmaron.

Lost Omens Character Guide
Lost Omens Character Guide p. 5 - Summary: Humans have spread all over Golarion to include the southern reaches of Casmaron.
Lost Omens Character Guide p. 6 - Summary: Keleshite culture originated on Casmaron.
Lost Omens Character Guide p. 8 - Summary: At its peak the Taldor Empire included the western edge of Casmaron.
Lost Omens Character Guide p. 9 - Summary: The Vudrani are a people from southeastern Casmaron.
Lost Omens Character Guide p. 10 - Summary: Casmaron includes many additional human ethnicities rarely seen in the Inner Sea region.
Lost Omens Character Guide p. 30 - Summary: Glimmer Gnomes are often found in locations that also hold major religious connections to include the lands around the Pit of Gormuz in Casmaron.
Lost Omens Character Guide p. 61 - Summary: Qadira is the gateway to Casmaron and ancestries such as Genekin, Kholo, Ysoki, and Vishkanya can be found here.

Pathfinder Core Rulebook
Pathfinder Core Rulebook p. 418 - Summary: Casmaron is Golarion’s largest continent and is east of Avistan and west of Tian Xia. The Castrovin Sea is a massive inland sea located in central Casmaron.

Pathfinder Quest #11. A Parchment Tree
Pathfinder Quest #11. A Parchment Tree p. 3 - Summary: Qadira is the gateway to the Padishah Empire of Kelesh in Casmaron.
Pathfinder Quest #11. A Parchment Tree p. 3 - Summary: The Pathfinder Society wants to set up a second lodge in Sedeq, Qadira as this will help the Society’s exploration into Casmaron.
Pathfinder Quest #11. A Parchment Tree p. 3 - Summary: Qadira is the major commerce hub moving goods between Avistand and the Kelshite Empire of Casmaron.
Pathfinder Quest #11. A Parchment Tree p. 5 - Summary: Xerbystes II, Satrap of Qadira has spent heavily on the upkeep and expansion of Qadira’s Capital of Katheer. Katheer hosts merchants from Casmaron.

Heroes of Golarion
Heroes of Golarion p. 2 - Summary: Casmaron is in the northern hemisphere and the largest continent on Golarion. Two of world’s largest empires are on Casmaron, the Kelesh Empire and Vudra Empire. The majority of the Kelesh Empire is on Casmaron, but extends into Avistan. Iblydos is also on Casmaron. Large populations of geniekin are found on Casmaron. The Vanara and Vishkanya ancestries are found on Casmaron, along with the Human ancestry ethnic groups of Casmar, Vudrani, Keleshite, and Iobarian.
Heroes of Golarion p. 3 - Summary: Garund is west of Casmaron.
Heroes of Golarion p. 3 - Summary: Tian Xia is east of Casmaron.
Heroes of Golarion p. 12-17 - Summary: Heroes of Casmaron Chapter. This chapter discusses various heroic options for people coming from or inspired by Casmaron.
Heroes of Golarion p. 12 - Summary: Northern Casmaron is cold with plague ravaged lands. Vudra is in southern Casmaron and has psychic colleges.
Heroes of Golarion p. 12 - Summary: In Vudra, Holy Beasts are individuals who take on the aspect of their deity’s sacred animal and seek to destroy rakshasas.
Heroes of Golarion p. 12-13 - Summary: The Plague Eaters of Iobaria commune with the spirits of those who died via plague. These spirits aid the Plague Eaters by protecting them from plagues and cleansing the land of disease.
Heroes of Golarion p. 13 - Summary: In Vudra, the peafowl is a popular choice for those who can alter their shape.
Heroes of Golarion p. 13 - Summary: Many ashrams and temples in Vudra teach self improvement through physical and mental discipline, and some even teach psychic techniques.
Heroes of Golarion p. 14 - Summary: Iblydos is an archipelago nation on Casmaron, with port cities that are popular stopping points on the Obari Crossing.
Heroes of Golarion p. 14 - Summary: The hero-gods of Iblydos are more apt to involve their oracles in their personal affairs, giving rise to god-meddled oracles.
Heroes of Golarion p. 14 - Summary: Kelksiomides is a hero-god from Pol-Ptirmeios, who was originally a vintner that was prophesied by cyclopes to suffer tragedy before his ascension.
Heroes of Golarion p. 14-15 - Summary: Psomeira was a captain in the Liachoran guard. Liachora was a city destroyed by the sea monster Ousmariku. Psomeira defeated Ousmariku during the destruction of Liachora, driving the beast back into the sea. Initially thought killed, Psomeira reappeared in the Aelyosos and assists in training the cities defenders should Ousmariku ever return.
Heroes of Golarion p. 15-16 - Summary: Iblydan witches are known for their powerful abilities and sometimes vengeful natures.
Heroes of Golarion p. 16-17 - Summary: Medusas are iconic creatures in the lore of Iblydos. Some people have bloodlines mixed with those of medusas.
Heroes of Golarion p. 17 - Summary: The Priest of the Fallen are Iblydan priests that open themselves to the spirits of fallen hero-gods. Priest of the Fallen become vessels for fallen hero-gods to once again enact their wills, if only briefly, upon the world.

Year of Shattered Sanctuaries #8: Foundation’s Price
Foundation’s Price p. 3 - Summary: As a gateway between Avaistan and Casmaron, Qadira holds mercantile and political influence. The Pathfinder Society hopes to establish a lodge in Sedeq to help serve as an access point into Casmaron.

Year of Shattered Sanctuaries #12: Fury’s Toll
Fury’s Toll p. 3 - Summary: As a gateway between Avaistan and Casmaron, Qadira holds mercantile and political influence. The Pathfinder Society hopes to establish a lodge in Sedeq to help serve as an access point into Casmaron.

Year of Shattered Sanctuaries #18. Dacilane Academy’s Delightful Disaster
Dacilane Academy’s Delightful Disaster p. 6 - Summary: The Spawn of Rovagug come from the Pit of Gormuz located in Casmaron.

Adventure Path #116. Fangs of War
Fangs of War p. 71 - Summary: The organization Blood’s Legacy seeks to unite Hobgoblins and other goblinoids across Golarion in an effort to create a globe spanning goblinoid empire. Blood’s Legacy has sent envoys to the Hobgoblins of western and southwestern Casmaron.

Travel Guide
Travel Guide p. 8 - Summary: Casmaron Unified Calendar is the calendar used by the Padishah Empire.
Travel Guide p. 35 - Summary: The Obari Crossing trade route links to trade routes in Casmaron.
Travel Guide p. 47 - Summary: With the establishment of New Thassilon and interest in ancient weaving and tailoring techniques is on the rise, to include techniques from Casmaron. A particular style of baggy trouser is common across much of Casmaron.
Travel Guide p. 71 - Summary: People of the Inner Sea generally know that Casmaron is where the Kelesh Empire and Vudra Empire is located. Many think Casmaron is a massive desert.

Qadira, Jewel of the East - Note: This entire book is pretty much relevant for gaining insight into Casmaron’s Kelesh Empire.
Qadira, Jewel of the East p. 5 - Summary: The Golden Path is a trade route that spans Casmaron with the western end located in Qadira.
Qadira, Jewel of the East p. 7 - Summary: In the Year 3923 the Pit of Gormuz opens for the first time unleashing the spawn of Rovagug into Casmaron.
Qadira, Jewel of the East p. 8 - Summary: In the Kelesh Empire, Qadira’s nickname is “Our Angry Daughter.” While none of the pre-Earthfall empires of Casmaron currently exist, Casmaron was not as deeply impacted as Avistan. In a pact made with Sarenrae, Kelesh emperors are not permitted to extend their life spans beyond 200 years.
Qadira, Jewel of the East p. 11 - Summary: Brevoy is especially familiar with the Kelesh Empire. Residents of Brevoy can typically recognize the differences between ethnic Keleshite and ethnic Qadiran peoples and are friendlier towards the former than the latter.
Qadira, Jewel of the East p. 16 - Summary: The College of the Green Dawn seeks to limit desertification in Casmaron.
Qadira, Jewel of the East p. 18 - Summary: Lugalisimaru is a pre-Keleshite deity from Casmaron and worshiped in Qadira bearing the title The Palm Tree King.
Qadira, Jewel of the East p. 18 - Summary: Oathos is a pre-Keleshite deity from Casmaron and worshiped in Qadira bearing the title of The Ever-Lost. Oathos was popular in the ancient empire of Khattib.
Qadira, Jewel of the East p. 26-27 - Summary: The Keleshite ethnicity is a constructed ethnicity that is applied to the various peoples that make up the Keleshite Empire. Specific ethnicities within the Keleshite Empire include: Aishmayars, Althameri, Khattibi, Mideans, Susianams, Tzorehiyi. Smaller ethnic groups include the Amai Birtim, Beshzens, Garundi, Jalunahs, Karas, Mishyrians, Ninshaburians, Qalahs, Tians, Vudrani, and Yenchaburians. Some of these groups are native within the Empire and others are populations that come from outside the empire but have established
Qadira, Jewel of the East p. 30 - Summary: Some Keleshites long for a return to their roots as desert warriors.

Qadira, Gateway to the East - Note: This entire book is pretty much relevant for gaining insight into Casmaron’s Kelesh Empire.
Qadira, Gateway to the East p. 2 - Summary: Qadira sits between the Inner Sea and Casmaron.
Qadira, Gateway to the East p. 3 - Summary: Padishah Emperor Adalan IV approved the annexation of Qadira into the Empire with formal rule beginning in 43 AR. This also began a migration of Keleshites from Casmaron’s interior into the cities of Qadira.
Qadira, Gateway to the East p. 4 - Summary: After peace was established with Taldor, many of Qadira’s warriors were repurposed as guards for the roads and river trade routes leading into Casmaron.
Qadira, Gateway to the East p. 6 - Summary: Qadira is a hub for trade routes leading into and out of Casmaron’s interior.
Qadira, Gateway to the East p. 10 - Summary: Sedeq’s markets are extensive and offer wares that can only be found by traveling to Casmaron’s interior.
Qadira, Gateway to the East p. 17 - Summary: Katheer was already a city when conquered by the Padishah Empire, and now it’s ports are a major access point for goods to pass to or from Casmaron.

2E Bestiary
Bestiary p. 68 - Summary: The former cyclopes empire of Koloran was located in northwestern Casmaron.

2E Bestiary 3
Bestiary 3 p. 32 - Summary: Bison can be found in Casmaron on the Whistling Plains and the grassland of the nation of Karazh.
Bestiary 3 p. 43 - Summary: Two-humped camels are native to the dry steppes of Casmaron.
Bestiary 3 p. 45 - Summary: Treasures from the lost Cecaelia empire of Sihuw are known to wash upon the shores of Casmaron and Tian Xia.
Bestiary 3 p. 138 - Summary: Huldra are most often found in northern Avistan and northern Casmaron.
Bestiary 3 p. 146 - Summary: Giant kangaroos are known to live on northern Casmaron’s dry steppes.
Bestiary 3 p. 183 - Namorrodor are creatures native to the plane of shadow and are known across Golarion in places such as Casmaron’s Windswept Wastes.
Bestiary 3 p. 286 - Summary: Large populations of Vanara are found in the jungles of southeastern Casmaron in where the Vanara originate from.

Pathfinder Adventure Path#110: The Thrushmoor Terror
The Thrushmoor Terror p. 7 - Summary: Some rare texts claim that the stela found in Thrushmoor share similarities with the stela found southwestern Casmaron.
The Thrushmoor Terror p. 7 - Summary: Beings from stars may have built the stela in Thrushmoor.
The Thrushmoor Terror p. 41 - Summary: There are books with titles such as “Mystical Sites of Eastern Casmaron” or “Argument Against Reality.”
The Thrushmoor Terror p. 45 - Neruzavin is a lost city in Casmaron.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #112: The Whisper Out of Time
The Whisper Out of Time p. 21 - Summary: Neruzavin is in the Parchlands in southwestern Casmaron.
The Whisper Out of Time p. 54 - Summary: A map shows the Parchlands as being located on the southwestern coast of Casmaron.
The Whisper Out of Time p. 72 - Summary: In a Vault Orv that lies below deserts southwestern Casmaron, the Yithians transported their city of Kothrekis. The Vault in which Kothrekis landed was initially teeming with life. However, the Yithian city disrupted the Vault’s ecosystem and the rich soil slowly turned into red sand. Strange winds eventually began to stir this Vault of red sand, slowly eroding Kothrekis and the sanity of any who dwell there.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #113: What Grows Within
What Grows Within p. 5 - Summary: Creatures from beyond the stars built an ancient and nameless city in southwestern Casmaron.
What Grows Within p. 13 - Summary: Neruzavin is a place in southwestern Casmaron. Many more details on Neruzavin are found in this adventure, but explore them only if you do not mind spoilers.
What Grows Within p. 14 - Summary: Aeptolinu once tried to guide the nascent civilizations of southwestern Casmaron.
What Grows Within p. 16 - Summary: Lamias from across Casmaron found Neruzavin aesthetically pleasing.
What Grows Within p. 50-51 - Summary: Peyhori-Han is a legendary figure that was legendary even in the time of Ninshabur.
What Grows Within p. 81 - Summary: The Parchlands are a desert region in Casmaron.

Blood of the Ancients
Blood of the Ancients p. 5 - Summary: Ninshabur was an aggressive empire that was wiped out by a Spawn of Rovagug.

Inner Sea Races
Inner Sea Races p. 6 - Summary: Geniekin, Humans, Vishkanyas, and Vanaras are common in Casmaron.
Inner Sea Races p. 13 - Summary: In the Age of Destiny the Keleshites founded an advanced civilization.
Inner Sea Races p. 14 - Summary: The Osirian and Jistkan Empires sent people into Casmaron. Garundi settlements can be found on Casmaron dating back thousands of years.
Inner Sea Races p. 14 - Summary: The Keleshite Empire started establishing trade routes with Vudra and Tian Xia a few decades prior to Absalom being founded.
Inner Sea Races p. 14 - Summary: The strongest Keleshite influence on Avistan is in Osirion.
Inner Sea Races p. 15 - Summary: The Empire of Kelesh is currently one of the most powerful empires on Golarion and has played a role in the Inner Sea region for thousands of years.
Inner Sea Races p. 15 - Summary: Iobarians is a human ethnicity from Casmaron.
Inner Sea Races p. 28 - Summary: The Padishah Empire connects the Inner Sea, Vudra, and Tian Xia through trade routes.
Inner Sea Races p. 31 - Summary: Keleshite is a collective term for people of the Padishah Empire. Qadira is a major hub for trade between continents.
Inner Sea Races p. 39 - Summary: The Bonuwat people of the Mwangi Expanse are expert sailors and can be found in trade ports on Casmaron.
Inner Sea Races p. 49 - Summary: Through cultural exchange some deities are worshiped across several continents.
Inner Sea Races p. 51 - Summary: Tian Xia separated from the Inner Sea region by Casmaron and the Obari Ocean. Explorers use the trade routes established by the Keleshites but non-Keleshite merchants pay a hefty toll to move their goods.
Inner Sea Races p. 64-65 - Summary: Iobaria is on Casmaron and east of Brevoy. Iobarians are likely descended from a mix of Kellids, Taldans, Ulfens, Casmar people from the western edges of Casmaron.
Inner Sea Races p. 93 - Summary: Visitors to Erages, Kyonin come as far away as Casmaron.
Inner Sea Races p. 100 - Summary: Orcs on Garund and Casmaron have a less brutal legacy than those on Avistan.
Inner Sea Races p. 117 - Summary: Geniekin are more common on Casmaron.
Inner Sea Races p. 130 - Summary: Geniekin are a sizable population on Casmaron.
Inner Sea Races p. 133 - Summary: Genies dwell on Casmaron resulting in more Geniekin.
Inner Sea Races p. 134 - Summary: Sulis are common geniekin on Casmaron.
Inner Sea Races p. 156 - Summary: Qlippoth-Spawn nephilim known as Motherless are more common in the wastelands of central Casmaron.
Inner Sea Races p. 162 - Summary: Centaurs are thought to originate on Casmaron.
Inner Sea Races p. 181 - Summary: Ysoki and Kholo share territory on Casmaron with the Ysoki living below ground and the Kholo living above ground.
Inner Sea Races p. 181 - Summary: Ysoki are common in the deserts of Casmaron.

Absalom, City of Lost Omens
Absalom, City of Lost Omens p. 20 - Summary: Voradni Voon was a minotaur conqueror that conquered three kingdoms and leveled three cities in central Casmaron. Voradni’s armies included large numbers of minotaurs, centaurs, and harpies. Voradni attempted to conquer Absalom.
Absalom, City of Lost Omens p. 48 - Summary: The few elephants found in Absalom are mostly of the smaller species that originate in southern Casmaron.
Absalom, City of Lost Omens p. 49 - Summary: Ugvashi are a species of large, razor-plated, pangolins originating from Casmaron.
Absalom, City of Lost Omens p. 93 - Summary: Nearly all deities worshiped on Golarion have a temple or shrine in Absalom’s Ascendant Court District to include deities from remote regions such as central Casmaron.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #67. The Snows of Summer
The Snows of Summer p. 5 - Summary: Iobaria is east of Avistan on the continent of Casmaron.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #69. Maiden, Mother, Crone
Maiden, Mother, Crone p. 4 - Summary: Iobaria is located on Casmaron.
Maiden, Mother, Crone p. 81 - Summary: Warlord Dartrus Bengelion sought to establish a settlement east of the Dvezda Marches in the wild lands outside of Iobaria’s plague zones.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #118. Siege of Stone
Siege of Stone p. 75 - Summary: The Naga built one of Golarions first nation-states in Casmaron’s southwestern jungles in the lands now known as Vudra. They utilized the Vishkanyas, Grippili, and Catfolk or the region as labor and subjects.
Siege of Stone p. 78 - Summary: Naga are found on Casmaron and other continents.

Pathfinder Society Year 0 - 12. Stay of Execution
12. Stay of Execution p. 3 - The Whistling Plains are on the far side of the World’s Edge Mountains, connecting Taldor to Casmaron’s interior.

Heaven Unleashed
Heaven Unleashed p. 3 - Summary: Thelmescurio, a paladin of Sarenrae hunts Spawn of Rovagug in Casmaron’s interior expanses.

Taldor, Echoes of Glory
Taldor, Echoes of Glory p. 4 - Summary: Built 2000 years ago by Tian monks, the Monastery of the Seven Forms in the World’s Edge Mountain requires students to cross Casmaron to reach the monastery.
Taldor, Echoes of Glory p. 5 - Summary: Yanmass, Taldor is one of the cities that serves as Taldor’s gateway to the east with traveling merchants for all over Casmaron setting up in the city's markets.

Taldor, The First Empire
Taldor, The First Empire p. 7 - Summary: The Taldor Empire had an influence on parts of Casmaron and Garund.
Taldor, The First Empire p. 16-17 - Summary: In the town of Vigil’s Rest blue collar workers from Casmaron are all too commonly abducted by Lion Blades for interrogation. To what ends is unclear, even to many of the Lion Blades.
Taldor, The First Empire p. 17 - Summary: Yanmass is a gateway for trade with northern and central Casmaron.
Taldor, The First Empire p. 32 - Summary: Porthmos is a province in Taldor that borders Casmaron’s Whistling Plains. The Whistling plains are grasslands with little water or natural resources.
Taldor, The First Empire p. 38 - Summary: The Monastery of the Seven Forms in the World’s Edge Mountain requires students to cross Casmaron to reach the monastery. The Order of the Seven Forms is an organization in Taldor that has incorporated and mixed the Monastery’s teachings with western techniques.
Taldor, The First Empire p. 58 - Summary: Ginever are humanoids that claim they originate from Casmaron and that they are the children of a god of fermentation. Qadirans claim the Ginever were a people cursed for their gluttony and are now vagabonds and bandits.

Weapons Master’s Handbook
Weapons Master’s Handbook p. 5 - Summary: The most well known weapons masters in the Inner Sea that originate from Casmaron come from Kelesh and Vudra.
Weapons Master’s Handbook p. 5 - Summary: Whirling Dervishes are warriors associated with Sarenrae and are found in areas of Casmaron, Garund, and Avistan.
Weapons Master’s Handbook p. 9 - Summary: Certain two-weapon tricks are associated with warriors from Northern Casmaron.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #33. The Varnhold Vanishing
The Varnhold Vanishing p. 7 - Summary: Cyclopes once built an empire in northwestern Casmaron.
The Varnhold Vanishing p. 7 - Summary: Vordakai was a necromancer tyrant in a pre-Earthfall cyclopes empire in Casmaron. After his death, one of his apprentices would adopt his name. The new Vordakai would eventually be buried on the westernmost edge of Casmaron.
The Varnhold Vanishing p. 7 - Summary: Willas Gundarson came into possession of an ancient map that was copied from an even older tablet that was found in Casmaron.
The Varnhold Vanishing p. 25 - Summary: Books with titles like “The Centaur Skyles of Central Casmaron” and “Iobarian Prehistory” provide information on Casmaron.
The Varnhold vanishing p. 50 - Summary: The tomb of Vordakai includes stone tablets that record some of the ancient history of Casmaron.
The Varnhold Vanishing p. 54-63 - Summary: Article titled “Iobaria Gazetteer.” This entire article is relevant.
The Varnhold Vanishing p. 79 - Summary: Iobaria is in northern Casmaron.
The Varnhold Vanishing p. 79 - Summary: During the fall and winter months rain and snow weather systems develop over the Castrovin Sea and pass over Iobaria and restrict travel.

Inner Sea Monster Codex
Monster Codex p. 4 - Summary: Iobaria is located on Casmaron. Iobaria is home to three Centaur ethnicities; Azorva, Rashalka, and Tsolniva.

The Ruby Phoenix Tournament
The Ruby Phoenix Tournament p. 3 - Summary: Goka is a major city for trade between Tian Xia, Vudra, and Casmaron.

Blood of the Elements
Blood of the Elements p. 4 - Summary: Some religious philosophies in Kelesh and Vudra on Casmaron believe that the world was formed through the actions of elder beings of primordial energies. These beings gifted the early peoples of Golarion with a bit of their power so that elemental energies can course through their blood.
Blood of the Elements p. 11 - Summary: Sulis are far more common in Casmaron and in particular in the Windswept Wastes

Humans of Golarion
Humans of Golarion p. 6 - Summary: The Keleshite Empire is on Casmaron and is ruled with the aid of genies. The Keleshite line of rulership is unbroken, and the empire emphasizes trade. Qadira is the empire’s gateway into the Inner Sea region.
Humans of Golarion p. 18 - Summary: Tian Xia is east of Casmaron.

Aquatic Adventures
Aquatic Adventures p. 3 - Summary: Between Casmaron and Tian Xia is the Embaral Ocean. Between Garund and Casmaron is the Obari Ocean.
Aquatic Adventures p. 12 - Summary: The seasonal winds that occur in spring and fall vastly improve oceanic trade routes across the Embaral Ocean. In parts of Casmaron, these seasonal winds are called Ylimancha’s Wing and festivals are held to celebrate the departure or trade ships. In Tian Xia the wind is called Wakening Wave and kite festivals are held in celebration.
Aquatic Adventures p. 16 - Summary: The Obari Ocean allows ship trade between Garund and Casmaron all the way down the coast of Vudra.
Aquatic Adventures p. 24-25 - Summary: Article about the Castrovin Sea. This entire article is relevant to Casmaron.
Aquatic Adventures p. 32 - Summary: The Shining Sea provides northern Casmaron with much of its oil, which is extracted from blubber from various aquatic species.

Guns and Gears
Guns and Gears p. 5 - Summary: Black powder is known to be used in Casmaron.
Guns and Gears p. 147 - Summary: Black powder was an export from Tian Xia and was initially limited between Tian Xia, Casmaron, and Vudra.
Guns and Gears p. 149 - Summary: In Vudra and Casmaron firearms that originate from Garund or Tian Xia are highly regarded.
Guns and Gears p. 153 - Summary: The jezail long guns originate from Casmaron and are particularly well balanced.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #192. Worst of All Possible Worlds
Worst of All Possible Worlds p. 16 - Summary: The Desert of Storms is a desert in Casmaron that experiences regular storms of strange weather phenomenon. Despite the various storms experienced in the Desert of Storms the area remains arid.

People of the River
People of the River p. 8 - Summary: The assassin religious-philosophy Life, Death, and the Vessel Between originates in Yenchabur. Located in central Casmaron, Yenchabur was destroyed in a rain of fire, sending the survivors fleeing west where they eventually settled in Daggermark.
People of the River p. 19 - Summary: Numeria’s Tiger Lords tribe offer their services as mercenaries and can be found operating as far east as Iobaria in Casmaron.

Lands of the Linnorm Kings
Lands of the Linnorm Kings p. 4 - Summary: In 752 AR Ulfen settlers found Okormirr on northern Casmaron.

Misfit Monsters Redeemed
Misfit Monster Redeemed p. - Summary: In the ancient ethereal spider city of Yamileh, phase spiders stole away humans from Golarion and weaved them into their webs as living livestock. These humans transformed over time into creatures commonly referred to as adherers. Eventually, Yamileh was destroyed in a war with Xill and the adherers were flung across the planes, with some landing on Golarion’s Casmaron.

Giants Revisited
Giants Revisited p. 13 - Summary: Cyclopes once ruled the empire of Koloran in northwestern Casmaron.

Impossible Lands
Impossible Lands p. 50 - Summary: A few Nagaji enclaves are known to exist on Casmaron outside of Vudra.
Impossible Lands p. 212 - Summary: On Casmaron, people consider the city of Prada Hanam to be and example Khiben-Sald’s glory and brutality but also and example of the path to which the wounds can heal.
Impossible Lands p. 221 - Summary: The talwar is a common type of sword on Casmaron.
Impossible Lands p. 339 - Summary: The large razor-plated pangolins called Ugvashi, are the traditional pack animals of Casmaron Halflings.

Blood of the Beast
Blood of the Beast p. 20 - Summary: The homelands of the Ysoki are located in southern Tian Xia and in central Casmaron.
Blood of the Beast p. 23 - Summary: Ranatagi is a Ysoki practice common in Vudra and eastern Casmaron.
Blood of the Beast p. 28 - Summary: Vanaras are found in southeastern Casmaron.

Mythic Realms
Mythic Realms p. 2 - Summary: The Pit of Gormuz is located in the steppes of Casmaron.
Mythic Realms p. 28-31 - Summary: Article on the Pit of Gormuz. This entire article is relevant to Casmaron.

Lost Kingdoms
Lost Kingdoms p. 2 - Summary: Cyclops expatriates of Ghol-Gan established the kingdom of Koloran in modern day Iobaria.
Lost Kingdoms p. 26 - Summary: Cyclopes that foresaw the fall of Ghol-Gan gathered their followers and migrated east, establishing the kingdom of Koloran. Some of these cyclopes ventured southeast to the island nation of Iblydos.

Merchant’s Manifest
Merchant’s Manifest p. 16 - Summary: Katheer, Capital of Qadira is an economic gateway between the Inner Sea and the Padishah Empire of Casmaron.
Merchant’s Manifest p. 27 - Summary: Ular Kel is the capital city of the nation of Karazh on Casmaron. Karazh is known for its large number of coffee shops. Popular coffees include Dragon’s Blend, Karazhica, and Yenchaburian Blend. Traders crossing the Grass Sea often make use of magic items such as the Horse-Caller Flute and the Caravan Guardian.

Lost Treasures
Lost Treasures p. 8 - Summary: Named the Lenyenko Dark, after its ill fated discoverer, this ancient complex in the Icerime Peaks was built by the cyclopes of Casmaron’s Koloran Empire.
Lost Treasures p. 8-9 - Summary: Tabsagal is a large temple complex that consists of both treasure vaults and temples of worship for various Vudran deities. Tabsagal was built by Ninshabur and served as a refuge during the destruction of the nation. Built on the western shore of the Castrovin Sea, the Pathfinder Society has sent expeditions to the region to learn more about Tabsagal’s origin and purpose. One building in the complex remains in use, the Shrine of the Naga Prince. The Naga Prince is a deity of domination, strength, and wealth. While the temple remains sealed, it is maintained by Rudrarameni, the cult’s head priestess.
Lost Treasures p. 22-23 - Summary: These pages cover in detail the Champion of the Gilded Host. The Champion of the Gilded Host is an immense construct built by the nation of Praramdav. Praramdav was concerned that Ninshabur would seek to conquer it, but Ninshabur was destroyed by a Spawn of Rovagug before that could happen. Fearing this new threat even more, Praramdav sought to build a guardian that could protect it from Rovagug’s spawn.
Lost Treasures p. 28-29 - Summary: The merchant ship known as the Feathered Galley of Ataylos is one of the most legendary ships of Iblydos.
Lost Treasures p. 46 - Summary: Durvin Gest traveled to the ruins of Ninshabur in eastern Casmaron.

Mythical Monsters Revisited
Mythical Monsters Revisited p. 8 - Summary: Chimeras originate from Iblydos, but have since expanded their range and are found on Casmaron and other continents.
Mythical Monsters Revisited p. 31 - Summary: Images of Hydra are commonly painted on pottery made in Iblydos. Hydra are found on Casmaron and other continents.
Mythical Monsters Revisited p. 38 - Kraken will attack ships regardless of nation or origin, to include ships bound for Casmaron.
Mythic Monsters Revisited p. 44 - Medusas are thought to originate from Iblydos, but have since spread across Golarion.

Rival Guide
Rival Guide p. 10 - Summary: The Children of Steel are a mercenary group that has taken jobs in both the Padishah Empire and Vudra.

Healer’s Handbook
Healer’s Handbook p. 6 - Summary: The patron deity of the Padishah Empire on Casmaron is Sarenrae.

Artifacts and Legends
Artifacts and Legends p. 10 - Summary: In Ninshabur, one of King Arecbezshari’s daughters met a mysterious priest in the city of Zarrataab. After meeting the priest Princess Iaresa was given a strange ring. Sometime after Iaresa’s death the ring was rediscovered and locked away in Tabsagal as a curious treasure.

Book of the Dead
Book of the Dead p. 14 - Summary: Pharasma is worshiped across Golarion to include Casmaron.
Book of the Dead p. 116 - Summary: Variations on the materials that compose and Iruxi ossature depend on location and origin. In Vudra, Irruxi incorporate wood, amber, and bone, and in the badlands of Casmaron red sandstone is incorporated.

Occult Origins
Occult Origins p. 14 - Summary: The Pit of Gormuz in Casmaron is an ancient sight that emanates a large amount of psychic power.

Wilderness Origins
Wilderness Origins p. 14 - Summary: A band of leshies has been spotted by Katapeshi traders wandering in Casmaron.

Hell Unleashed p. 52-53 - Summary: Miranksha is an adhukait asura that formed as a result of the actions of the god Diomazul. Miranksah wandered Vudra and Casmaron assaulting caravans and temples before disappearing for several centuries. Recently, Miranksah as reappeared in Jalmeray.
Hell Unleashed p. 63 - Summary: Raamnaba was a noble in Ninshabur on Casmaron. During the attack of the Spawn of Rovagug that destroyed Ninshabur, Raamnaba was charged with escorting the ruling class’s children and elderly to the treasure-temple refuge of the nobility. (This is most likely Tabsagal) Raamnaba, instead panicked and sacrificed his charges to infernal powers in hopes of protection.

Distant Shores
Distant Shores p. 2 - Summary: Ular Kel sits among the steppes of central Casmaron.
Distant Shores p. 2-3 - Summary: These pages contain a brief summary about Aelyosos, Radripal, and Ular Kel, all of which are cities on Casmaron.
Distant Shores p. 4-13 - Summary: Article about the city Aelyosos. All pages are relevant.
Distant Shores p. 20 - Summary: Anuli’s Endless Market offers trade goods from Casmaron.
Distant Shores p. 34-43 - Summary: Article about the city Radripal. All pages are relevant.
Distant Shores p. 54-63 - Summary: Article about the city Ular Kel. All pages are relevant.

The Mwangi Expanse
The Mwangi Expanse - p. 290 - Summary: Beyond Garund, Anadi communities can be found on Casmaron and the Azlanti Isles.

Lost Omens Ancestry Guide
Lost Omens Ancestry Guide p. 44-45 - Summary: Various Iruxi ethnicities are known to occupy the desert regions of northern Garund and western Casmaron. These include the Zephyr Kin, Nazegs, Hazairs, Barrukas, and Shaikims.
Lost Omens Ancestry Guide p. 53 - Summary: Ysoki highly respected in Kelesh, and are generally found throughout Casmaron.
Lost Omens Ancestry Guide p. 54 - Summary: Ysoki ethnicities on Casmaron include the Sarki who are found primarily in the Grass Sea, and the Vradji are found in Vudra, along with two additional Ysoki ethnicities.
Lost Omens Ancestry Guide p. 99 - Summary: Geniekin is a generic term that refers to anyone with an elemental heritage. The term Geniekin originates from the Padishah Empire of Kelesh.
Lost Omens Ancestry Guide p. 109 - Summary: The largest populations of Suli geniekin are found on Casmaron in the Windswept Wastes.
Lost Omens Ancestry Guide p. 110 - Summary: Suli geniekin are wanders and are most often found as nomads in the Windswept Wastes.

Pathfinder Society Field Guide
Pathfinder Society Field Guide p. 2 - Summary: Some Pathfinders make the sea voyage around Casmaron to travel between Goka and Absalom.
Pathfinder Society Field Guide p. 19 - Summary: Qadira is the gateway for trade between Casmaron and the Inner Sea region. The Empire of Kelesh seeks to spread its influence via trade with Absalom and by extension other areas of the Inner Sea.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #56. Raiders of the Fever Sea
Raiders of the Fever Sea p. 65 - Summary: The Embaral Ocean facilitates shipped trade along the coasts in summer and winter when the Ocean experiences the doldrums. In the fall and spring the winds pick up and allows for eastern/western trade between Casmaron and Tian Xia.
Raiders of the Fever Sea p. 66 - Summary: The Obari Ocean facilitates trade between Casmaron and Garund.
Raiders of the Fever Sea p. 66 - Summary: The Castrovin Sea allows for ship trade along the inland sea’s coast. Sailing the deep waters of the Castrovin Sea is dangerous and holds many hazards. The sea stacks Citadel Allatro, the Pillars of Trajheir, and Casador’s Maw are a few of these dangers. Locathahs and Merrows live in the Castrovin Sea. The depths of the Castrovin Sea have connections to the Darklands.

Classic Treasures Revisited
Classic Treasures Revisited p. 33 - Summary: The Helm of Sublime Splendor is a magical helm crafted by the servants of the Padishah Emperor of Kelesh.
Classic Treasures Revisited p. 44-45 - Summary: The accounts of Adikavi Katrasadda detail that multiple spheres of annihilation were used to combat a Spawn of Rovagug that attacked Vudra. Later the spheres were given to the Maharaja of Vudra and were locked in windowless towers made of blue iron.
Classic Treasures Revisited p. 61 - Summary: A well of many worlds is known to have come from Tian Xia and later passed through many hands on Casmaron.

Monsters of Myth[b/]
Monsters of Myth p. 84-89 - Summary: Article about the creature known as Somnalu. This entire article is relevant.

[b]Murders Mark
Murders Mark p. 29 - Summary: The Panotti are an ancestry found primarily on Casmaron. Panotti may originate from a kingdom that fell under a curse, but the Panotti deny this story.

Pathfinder Chronicles Gazetteer
Pathfinder Chronicles Gazetteer p. 10 - Summary: The Keleshite people are from Casmaron. The Padishah Empire once waged wars of subjugation against its Avistan and Garund. For the past century the Padishah Empire has instead focused on strengthening trade.
Pathfinder Chronicles Gazetteer p. 16 - Summary: Kelish is the common language of the Padishah Empire. The Padishah Empire stretches from Qadira to the edge of Vudra.
Pathfinder Chronicles Gazetteer p. 17 - Summary: Vudrani is the language of Vudra. Vudra is a near mythical land for many in the Inner Sea region.
Pathfinder Chronicles Gazetteer p. 19 - Summary: In the Year 3923 the Pit of Gormuz opens for the first time unleashing the spawn of Rovagug into Casmaron.
Pathfinder Chronicles Gazetteer p. 22 - Summary: The largest continent on Golarion is Casmaron. In the central steppes are nomadic horse-tribes, Kelesh is a desert empire, and Vudra is a land of impossible kingdoms. West of Casmaron is the peninsula continent of Avistan.
Pathfinder Chronicles Gazetteer p. 23 - Summary: Ice shelves from the Crown of the World can extend into Casmaron, Tian Xia, and Avistan.
Pathfinder Chronicles Gazetteer p. 46 - Summary: Numerian steel is known as far away as Casmaron.
Pathfinder Chronicles Gazetteer p. 48-49 - Summary: Section on Qadira, this whole section is relevant.
Pathfinder Chronicles Gazetteer p. 63 - Summary: Spawn of Rovagug are known to emerge from the Pit of Gormuz in Casmaron.

Dragons Revisited/[b]
Dragons Revisited p. 62 - Summary: Most white dragons are thought to live in northern Avistan, Tian Xia, and Casmaron as well as the Crown of the World.

[b]Dungeon Denizens Revisited
Dungeon Denizens Revisited p. 8 - Summary: Bulettes are known to inhabit the plains stretching east into Casmaron. Bulettes have lately been in a population boom.
Dungeon Denizens Revisited p. 20 - Summary: Some Cults of Rovagug favor the gelatinous cube as guardians.
Dungeon Denizens Revisited p. 44 - Summary: A large desert variety of purple worm is found in the deserts of Casmaron. In the central desert of Casmaron is a meteor impact crater forming a miles wide valley. Legends claim this meteorite brought with it the Star-Worm that then birthed the first purple worms on Golarion. Myths claim the Namzaruum the Sword and other heroes have encountered the Star-Worm, but the Star-Worm was never destroyed and is currently slumbering.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #144. Midwives to Death
Midwives to Death p. 74-75 - Summary: Article on Iblydan Hero-Gods. This entire article is relevant.

Inner Sea NPC Codex
Inner Sea NPC Codex p. 59 - Summary: Usij cultists, worshipers of Ahriman, Lord of All Divs originate in Casmaron, and came to the Inner Sea with the Keleshite Invasion of northern Garund. Leaders of the Usij cult meet annually in an undisclosed location in central Casmaron.

Bastards of Golarion
Bastards of Golarion p. 8 - Summary: Half-Elves from as far away as Casmaron make pilgrimages to Erages, Kyonin.
Bastards of Golarion p. 13 - Summary: Frostkin Half-Orcs can be found in northern Casmaron.

Highhelm
Highhelm p. 26 - Summary: The rarest dwarven visitors to Highhelm are dwarves from Casmaron, Tian Xia, and Arcadia.

Into the Darklands
Into the Darklands p. 6 - Summary: There are many entrances to the Darklands across Golarion, but the most fabled is the Pit of Gormuz. The Pit of Gormuz is 20 miles wide. (Includes additional details relating to the Pit).
Into the Darklands p. 63 - Summary: Casmaron is the continent that has been most plagued by Spawn of Rovagug.

Gods and Magic (3.5)
Gods and Magic p. 32 - Summary: The Spawn of Rovagug emerge from the pit of Gormuz.

Thornkeep
Thornkeep p. 7 - Summary: In the Year 4402 Rivermark in the River Kingdoms is occupied by exiles from Casmaron and is later renamed Daggermark.

Armor Master’s Handbook
Armor Master’s Handbook p. 3 - Summar: The stylized armors of Casmaron tend to be lighter to accommodate the movements of traders or nomadic peoples.
Armor Master’s Handbook p. 11 - Summary: The Swift Iron combat style is popular among warriors in Casmaron and Tian Xia.
Armor Master’s Handbook p. 29 - Summary: Stone-Eater Armor originates from Casmaron and were found in a city destroyed by a powerful medusa.

Occult Mysteries
Occult Mysteries p. 8 - Summary: The Cyclopes of Casmaron, Humans of Azlant, and Dragons of Tian Xia replaced the Serpentfolk as the dominant powers in the Age of Legends.
Occult Mysteries p. 29 - Summary: The cult of Ioun Star is also a knightly order that has an interest in the Windswept Wastes of Casmaron. Within the cult, those that follow the Apotheosis Almorain, believe that from the followers of the hero-god Namzaruum will come the next emperor of Azlant.

People of the Sands
People of the Sands p. 10 - Summary: The Padishah Empire extends as far as Qadira, and covers much of southern Casmaron.

Magic Tactics Toolbox
Magic Tactics Toolbox p. 28 - Summary: Casmaron’s dervishes are known to use blood hexes.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #166. Despair on Danger Island
Despair on Danger Island p. 47 - Summary: The team Under the Pale Sun is from Zelshabbar, as satrapy in Casmaron.

City of Strangers
City of Strangers p. 45 - Summary: Members of the Iridian Fold are thought to originate on Casmaron.

Blood of the Sea
Blood of the Sea p. 31 - Summary: The Obari Ocean and Embaral Ocean are on either side of Casmaron. The Castrovin Sea is a large interior sea on Casmaron.

Mystery Monsters Revisited
Mystery Monsters Revisited p. 20 - Summary: It is theorized that the first death worms came off of Chenmosit when they crawled out of the Pit of Gormuz on Casmaron.

Fey Revisited
Fey Revisited p. 55 - Summary: Satyrs are found in western Casmaron.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #27. What Lies in Dust
127. What Lies in Dust p. 63-64 - Summary: The Order of the Pyre tasks itself with keeping strange or dangerous beliefs and cults from spreading, such as those coming from Casmaron.
127. What Lies in Dust p. 89 - Summary: Scholars on Casmaron theorize the royal nagas were once advisors to great human empires.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #63. The Asylum Stone
127. The Asylum Stone p. 21 - Summary: Casmaron is the origin of some spices that are considered exotic in Avistan.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #188. They Watched the Stars
188. They Watched the Stars p. 69 - Summary: Casmaron is east of the Lake of Mists and Veils.

People of the Stars
People of the Stars p. 11 - Summary: Casmaron is a location on the planet Golarion.

Quests and Campaigns
Quests and Campaigns p. 7 - Summary: Ninshabur is a lost city on Casmaron rumored to hold artifacts.
Quests and Campaigns p. 10 - Summary: There are ruins in Iobaria on Casmaron.
Quests and Campaigns p. 15 - Summary: A deity may send you to the Pit of Gormuz on Casmaron.

People of the Wastes
People of the Wastes p. 23 - Summary : Kholo can be found in the deserts of Casmaron

Inner Sea Bestiary
Inner Sea Bestiary p. 48 - Summary: Volnagur is most often seen on Casmaron.

Inner Sea Primber
Inner Sea Primer p. 27 - Summary : Rovagug is bound at the bottom of the Pit of Gormuz on Casmaron.

The Grand Bazaar
The Grand Bazaar p. 37 - Summary: The lapis lazuli used to make the pigment ultramarine is only found on Casmaron.
The Grand Bazaar p. 118 - Summary: Supposedly the Amazing Mister Golarion navigated a maze in the Riven Hills to learn Casmarons secrets.

The Godsmouth Heresy
The Godsmouth Heresy p. 15 - Members of the Iridian Fold are thought to originate on Casmaron.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #24. The Final Wish
The Final Wish p. 48-55 - Summary: Article on the Spawn of Rovagug. This entire article is relevant.

Faiths of Corruption
Faiths of Corruption p. 11 - Summary: A major holy site for the faith of Rovagug is the Pit of Gormuz.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #61. Shards of Sin
Shards of Sin p. 81 - Summary: Bishop Agathions are reported as appearing more frequently off the coast of Casmaron in the Embaral Ocean leading to theories that a portal to the oceans of Nirvana might be active there.

The Great Beyond (3.5)
The Great Beyond p. 49 - Summary: The demiplane The Dead Vault is the prison of Rovagug. The Dead Vault is connected to the Pit of Gormuz in Casmaron’s Windswept Wastes.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #58. Island of Empty Eyes
Island of Empty Eyes p. 69 - Known Cyclopes empires that were established on Casmaron include Koloran in northern Casmaron, and another one in what is modern day Iblydos.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #126. Beyond the Veiled Past
Beyond the Veiled Past p. 65 - Summary: A cult of Rovagug known as the Awakeners is lead by the Caller of Ruins and seeks to one day awaken Rovagug.

Druma, Profit and Prophecy
Druma, Profit and Prophecy p. 19 - Summary: Druma’s Auriferous Armada conducts sea trade with Casmaron.

Osirion, Legacy of Pharaohs
Osirion, Legacy of Pharaohs p. 4 - Summary: Ulunat had terrorized Casmaron and northern Garund before being brought low by Azghaad.

Osirion, Land of Pharaohs
Osirion, Land of Pharaohs p. 17 - Summary: Ulunat originated from the Pit of Gormuz on Casmaron, and their shell now forms the Black Dome in Sothis.

Agents of Evil
Agents of Evil p. 22 - Summary: The poison Ragespittle is imported from Casmaron.

Pathfinder Society Guide
Pathfinder Society Guide p. 9 - Summary: The Grand Lodge of Absalom was originally a manor house gifted to Selmius Foster, who facilitated the establishment of the spice trade between Casmaron’s Vudra and Absalom.

Heroes From the Fringe
Heroes From the Fringe p. 30 - Summary: The Ysoki of Casmaron are known to live within the arid deserts.

Heroes of the High Court
Heroes of the High Court p. 16 - Summary: The empires of Casmaron are known to have complex politics.

Dungeoneer’s Handbook
Dungeoneer’s Handbook p. 30 - Summary: The spellbook “Redwing’s Dungeon Companion” includes spells that the adventurer Redwing collected in his travels, to include locations in Vudra and Casmaron.

Cheliax, The Infernal Empire
Cheliax, The Infernal Empire p. 17 - Summary: A cult of Rovagug in Casmaron has plans to lay siege to Citadel Krane and unleash the contents of the Godless Gallery.

Guide to the River Kingdoms
Guide to the River Kingdoms p. 13 - Summary: Article on Daggermark that includes discussion of its origin. Daggermark was founded by refugees from the city of Yenchabur.
Guide to the River Kingdoms p. 51 - Summary: The easternmost city of the River Kingdoms is Dunsward and is on the border of the steppes of Casmaron.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #94. Tomb of the Giant Queen
Tomb of the Giant Queen p. 73 - Summary: The Resurgents are a Cyclopes cult that believe in the prophecies of the cult's founder, Kebekma. Originating in Iblydos, the cult has since spread to Iobaria, and other parts of Casmaron.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #46. Blood for Blood
Blood for Blood p. 46 - Summary: Armag was the legendary leader of the Tiger Lord tribe and led a campaign out of the Realm of the Mammoth Lords into Numeria and eventually reaching Iobaria on Casmaron.

Dragon Empires Gazetteer
Dragon Empires Gazetteer p. 24 - The city of Goka is a major trading city with Casmaron.

Ships of the Inner Sea
Ships of the Inner Sea p. 28 - Summary: Hu-Hazhong is a merchant ship from Tian Xia that sails along the coast of Casmaron.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #23 - The Impossible Eye
The Impossible Eye p. 63 - Summary: The Pit of Gormuz is a 20 mile wide pit sacred to the cults of Rovagug.

Pathfinder Society Roleplaying Guild Guide: Season of the Ten
Season of the Ten p. 35 - Summary: Casmaron is east of Qadira.

Pathfinder Society: Year of the Stolen Storm
Year of the Stolen Storm p. 33 - Summary: Casmaron is east of Qadira.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #95. Anvil of Fire
Anvil of Fire p. 39 - Summary: The Ruby Sapphire of Osh-Maru is rumored to come from Casmaron.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #60. From Hell’s Heart
From Hell’s Heart p. 61 - Summary: The Titan Ifestus was slumbering in a large volcano in Casmaron when Earthfall happened.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #132. The Six-Legend Soul
The Six-Legend Soul p. 67 - Summary: Queen Eutropia plans to attract foreign traders, artists, and scholars to Taldor, while also sending Taldan traders, artists, and scholars abroad to places like Casmaron.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #176. Lost Mammoth Valley
Lost Mammoth Vallery p. 71 - Summary: Around the Pit of Gormuz in Casmaron, carnivorous megafauna are more common.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #83. The Slave Trenches of Hakotep
The Slave Trenches of Hakotep p. 68 - Summary: After the Armageddon Engine emerged from the Pit of Gormuz on Casmaron it made its way west to Garund and attacked the Shory Empire in the Year -632

Pathfinder Adventure Path #145. Hellknight Hill
Hellknight Hill p. 78 - Summary: In addition to Garund, Anadi are found in Casmaron and Azlant.

Pathfinder Adventure Path #158. Sixty Feet Under
Sixty Feet Under p. 67-73 - Summary: Article about the Impossible Kingdoms of Vudra. This entire article is relevant.


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Pathfinder Roleplaying Game Superscriber; Pathfinder Starfinder Adventure Path, Starfinder Roleplaying Game, Starfinder Society Subscriber

My first highlight is coming from the Armor Master’s Handbook.

Armor Master’s Handbook p. 29 - Summary: Stone-Eater Armors originate from Casmaron and were found in a city destroyed by a powerful medusa.

This destroyed city was most likely in Iblydos, but this isn’t specifically stated. Based on the description of the armor having imagery of medusas and gorgons and that the armor directly opposes the abilities of those creatures, this city likely had it out for creatures that could turn other creatures to stone. And at some point they clearly messed with the wrong medusa. Looking at the types of medusa on Golarion we know there are Stheno, Medusa, Eygreas, and Euryale. Most likely it was a Euryale that destroyed this city, but she may have been aided by Medusas and Eygreases.
On a personal note, I kind of think it would be awesome, if this city has since become the home city of the Stheno and if this city played a role in the story of the creation of the Stheno. Given that as an ancestry the Stheno have only been around for just over a century and considering the very limited information we have on this city, there is the potential for some very interesting recent history here.


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Pathfinder Roleplaying Game Superscriber; Pathfinder Starfinder Adventure Path, Starfinder Roleplaying Game, Starfinder Society Subscriber

Tabsagal

This one is a wild ride, but I love it. Tabsagal was a combination of a temple city, treasure vault, and noble retreat for the nobility of Ninshabur. From the various sources listed below we can extrapolate that Tabsagal was a place of worship that was reserved for the nobility of Ninshabur, with numerous religions being represented. Religious representation ranged from shrines to entire temple complexes. The clerics also appear to have served double duty as both guardians of the artifacts and treasures stored at Tabsagal, as well as tending to the religious needs of nobility.
Of all the temples that were once active in Tabsagal, all are inactive with the exception of the Temple of the Naga Prince. We know very little about the Naga Prince, other than that he is a deity that was worshiped in Ninshabur, he is a deity of domination, strength, and wealth, and that his cult is still active in Tabsagal area. We can guess that the Naga Prince is likely a naga deity and is commonly worshiped by naga. This would bring the known naga deities up to three; Ravithra Mother of Nagas, Nalinivati Queen of Nagas, and the Naga Prince who is as yet unnamed.
When the Armageddon Engine attacked Ninshabur the situation in the empire became dire. The Armageddon Engine not only attacked the cities and towns of Ninshabur, but each attack was disturbingly thorough with the Spawn of Rovagug tracking and killing small groups or single individuals that escaped each location it destroyed. As Ninshabur’s fight against the Armageddon Engine continued the decision was made to send the noble class’s children and elderly to Tabsagal for safety. Some of these children and elderly were put in the care of a noble named Raamnaba, who was to escort them to Tabsagal. Instead, fearing for his safety, Raamnaba sacrificed the children and elderly in his charge to infernal powers to gain protection from the devastation of the Armageddon Engine.
As Ninshabur fell, those nobles who managed to reach Tabsagal, ordered their servants and guardians to kill any refugees spotted fleeing towards Tabsagal. With the Armageddon Engine tracking down killing any who escaped the destruction it inflicted, the nobles feared that refugees would lead the monster to Tabsagal. While this tactic appears to have worked and the Spawn never reached Tabsagal, those same nobles never left Tabsagal. Possibly out of fear, possibly out of divine punishment, but whatever the reason, the nobles hiding in Tabsagal slowly starved to death surrounded by the temples and treasures the empire reserved for its noble class.
In the Year 4328, Pathfinder Durvin Gest wrote about his exploration of Tabsagal in the sixth volume of the Pathfinder Chronicles. Tabsagal is one of the few locations where the Pathfinder Society has sent multiple research teams. Despite this, much of Tabsagal remains a mystery. Artifacts known to have been held or are currently held in Tabsagal include: The Scepter of Ages, Apollyon Ring, Naga Prince Diadem, Rod of the Serpent Tamer.

For details on Tabsagal see the following:
The Final Wish p. 48-55 - Summary: Article on the Spawn of Rovagug.
Inner Sea World Guide p. 203-206 - Summary: Article discussing Casmaron. Major subsections include: Padishah Empire of Kelesh, Windswept Wastes, Iobaria, Ninshabur, and Vudra.
Lost Treasures p. 8-9 - Summary: Tabsagal is a large temple complex that consists of both treasure vaults and temples of worship for various Vudran deities. Tabsagal was built by Ninshabur and served as a refuge during the destruction of the nation. Built on the western shore of the Castrovin Sea, the Pathfinder Society has sent expeditions to the region to learn more about Tabsagal’s origin and purpose. One building in the complex remains in use, the Shrine of the Naga Prince. The Naga Prince is a deity of domination, strength, and wealth. While the temple remains sealed, it is maintained by Rudrarameni, the cult’s head priestess.
Artifacts and Legends p. 10 - Summary: In Ninshabur, one of King Arecbezshari’s daughters met a mysterious priest in the city of Zarrataab. After meeting the priest Princess Iaresa was given a strange ring. Sometime after Iaresa’s death the ring was rediscovered and locked away in Tabsagal as a curious treasure.
Artifacts and Legends p. 42 - Summary: In the Year -919 Governor Haldazhai of the Azahoud Province of Ninshabur gifted the Scepter of Ages to his liege, after which the artifact was locked in Tabsagal. (Fun Note: At this time, the scepter initially appeared in the hands of a “strange, beetle-like semi-humanoid” could this be an early and possibly unintentional reference to the new Surkis ancestry in Howl of the Wild?)
Hell Unleashed p. 63 - Summary: Raamnaba was a noble in Ninshabur on Casmaron. During the attack of the Spawn of Rovagug that destroyed Ninshabur, Raamnaba was charged with escorting the ruling class’s children and elderly to the treasure-temple refuge of the nobility. (This is most likely Tabsagal) Raamnaba, instead panicked and sacrificed his charges to infernal powers in hopes of protection.
Absalom, City of Lost Omens p. 237 - Summary: The book “The Last God-Kings of Ninshabur” records the story of Tabsagal and is often consider a work of fiction in modern day Absalom.

Dark Archive

Pathfinder Starfinder Roleplaying Game Subscriber

Tabsagal feels like a legendary adventuring location largely forgotten by pathfinder despite it being one of most commonly referred dungeons in casmaron huh ._.


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Pathfinder Roleplaying Game Superscriber; Pathfinder Starfinder Adventure Path, Starfinder Roleplaying Game, Starfinder Society Subscriber
CorvusMask wrote:
Tabsagal feels like a legendary adventuring location largely forgotten by pathfinder despite it being one of most commonly referred dungeons in casmaron huh ._.

Yeah, it's got a really crazy history! But if we start to get a closer look at Casmaron, maybe we'll get an Emerald Spire size adventure set there. One can certainly dream!

Paizo Employee Chief Creative Officer, Publisher

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Brinebeast wrote:
So I probably went a little overboard, but I decided to keyword search the term “Casmaron” across every Pathfinder source I have.

::Emperor GIF::

Yessss. Yessssss.
::/Emperor GIF::

Paizo Employee Chief Creative Officer, Publisher

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Tabsagal was invented by me and included in the Pathfinder Society article way back in Pathfinder #1. :)

It has not been forgotten! We may even return there in a big way some day. It's certainly one of the most interesting and historically important locations in the Windswept Wastes, if not all of Casmaron.

Kudos to Brinebeast for dredging this stuff up!

These types of minor references are very, very helpful!

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