Normally a weapon has a 10 foot range increment and gets penalties for being thrown farther than this increment but that's throwing it at someone on the battle field with you. So if someone is 30 ft. away its a -12 penalty.
But what happens if the person is hovering 30 ft. straight up? Is there an additional penalty for this?
While the game often tries to keep things simple by only using two dimensions, sometimes calculating distances in 3D in unavoidable. As far as I know, there's no penalty or bonus for the angle with which you throw a ranged weapon.
By the way, your example math was off a bit:
Range: Any attack at more than this distance is penalized for range. Beyond this range, the attack takes a cumulative –2 penalty for each full range increment (or fraction thereof) of distance to the target. For example, a dagger (with a range of 10 feet) thrown at a target that is 25 feet away would incur a –4 penalty. A thrown weapon has a maximum range of five range increments. A projectile weapon can shoot to 10 range increments.
So a normal thrown dagger will have the following penalties:
0-10: no penalty
51+ : cannot reach
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Ask your GM.
I'm being sarcastic, sort of. Many times lately it seems when I, speaking as a GM (but I don't say that I am,) ask a question on these forums, that's the answer I get. If I DO say I am the GM, I instead get reminded that I am the GM. Like, thanks I didn't know that.
As to your topic, I'd pretty much agree due to the game not being designed with three dimensions in mind, distance up and distance straight are no different by the RAW. Although, I think it would be reasonably realistic yet still fair to subtract 5 feet from the distance you can throw an item straight up, to account for gravity trying to pull it back down.