The idea of "as long as ____ is safe, I can't be defeated" is a pretty common trope in fantasy fiction throughout history. Whether you're talking about a lich, or old noseless in Harry Potter (totally a lich), or step back a hundred years to this guy, or even reference ancient myths and biblical legends it's not an uncommon concept.
As far as spells that would have this effect, other than actually becoming a lich...? That'll take a bit of thought, and probably not find you something exact to what you want.
The only things that come to mind other than contingency spells are clones and projections that let a slain character jump back into a back-up body when they are killed. Alchemist has a number of methods for death prevention using back-up bodies.
There isn't really a spell the replicates having some specific item make you effectively immortal. The only thing that does this is becoming a lich, which isn't a specific spell and usually not allowed by GMs.
As menitoned, there are other spells that can allow you to achieve effective immortallity, just not with the whole "phylactery" type deal.
well magic jar if you hide your real body real good should be just fine. no?
im pretty sure a lic his based on creating a magical item that has that for constant effect(and the remening ofthe body that usaly is needed is focused on his soul trinket)
also im not sure about pathfinder isnce my dm wont have me looking in dm stuff. but back in RAvenloft D&D setting some of the anciant dead(momies) and ghosts could have been only permenetly killed by certen means .
momies usaly in some kind of ritual. that was specific for each induvidial. ghosts could be laid to rest by ether finding the reason they aare huanting and apease them. or finding their outmost dread and use it to complitly destroy them. to find more try looking up von richtens arsenal from the ranvloft setting.