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I'd have staples include eels and fish and crayfish that spawn in underground lakes along with bats and largish centipedes (which shouldn't be any 'grosser' than shrimp or lobster, which are basically just aquatic scavenger bugs).
The primary 'vegetation' would be mushrooms, but, assuming a fantasy 'underdark' sort of deal, with a thriving ecosystem of it's own, and strange 'underdark radiations,' there logically should be some sort of life that thrives on those energies. Just as thermophilic life exists here on earth, adapted to use energy sources other than sunlight, there should be living creatures in the darklands that feed off of the radiation and energy given off by strange rock formations. That life could be a kind of fungus, a crawling vine or even tiny brine creatures in deep lightless waters that swarm around crumbling aboleth constructions, wearing away the stone over centuries to feast on the lingering magics in these aeon's old constructs. Whether manaphilic, thermophilic, feeding on energies coming across planar rifts to the plane of fire, or actually devouring 'hard' radiation from pitchblend ore deposits, there are plenty of 'energy sources' that could sustain an ecosystem (in lieu of a sun) in the fantasy underground.
(The existence of D&D critters like brown mold, which reproduces when exposed to heat, or disenchanters, which 'feed' off of magic, provides precedent for these sorts of things. If a disenchanter can do it, certainly some tiny aquatic life can share that feature, and feed off of magical locations or items that have sunk below the waves, or deep into the earth, creating the necessary first link in a vast underground ecosystem, all powered by those ancient aboleth ruins and their decaying magical wards.)
And then there's nutrients that come in from above ground, through water seepage, or the actions of bats or insects that forage / feed above ground and then deposit their nutrient-packed waste in the darklands.
For dwarves who also have holdings above ground, goat and sheep (descended from local mountain goat strains) would be the biggest meat staple, along with rarer chicken, beef and pork.
Stuff everybody tends to associate with dwarves, beer and cheese and beef, would be the stuff they eat like crazy when they are visiting lowland race communities, not because 'that's what dwarves eat,' but because those are the sorts of foods that dwarves can't get at home, having no fields to grow hops or barley, or raise herds of cattle.