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Mostly ninja'd, but here goes:
1) Magus prepares spells just like Wizards. They have a spellbook and each day, they have to pick which spells they want to prepare. They spells they want to prepare have to be in their spellbook, and they have to have their spellbook available when they prepare spells each day.
At 2nd level, Magus will have both Spell Combat and Spellstrike, which effectively allows them to attack twice on their turn during a full-round action when they're casting a touch spell. Spell Combat allows them to cast a spell and make an attack with a weapon in the same turn with a -2 penalty on attack rolls; Spellstrike allows them to delivery touch spells through their weapon. Since touch spells like Shocking Grasp allow the caster to make a free attack against the target during the same turn that the spell is cast, the Magus can use Spellstrike to cast Shocking Grasp through his weapon and make an attack roll with his weapon to delivery the spell, and Spell Combat allows him to make a regular attack with his weapon in the same turn. Both attacks take a -2 penalty on the attack roll.
If you take the Dervish Dance feat, you just get to use your DEX modifier instead of STR on attack and damage rolls as long as you are using a scimitar. (not any light melee weapon, it must be a scimitar.)
2) Stats for Eastern equipment is in Ultimate Combat. You can also find them on the PRD.
3) In the Inner Sea (where most of the Pathfinder material takes place), most people speak Common because...it's the common language. It would be like going to Europe, where a lot of people speak English but also speak their local language; in the Inner Sea, most people speak Common but also speak the language of their country, or race (Chelish in Cheliax, Elven for Elves, etc.) If most of your players are from the Dragon Empire, they will all likely speak Tien, as that is the "common" language in the East.
4) Bracers of Armor. Similar, custom items can be allowed, per the GMs discretion, which aren't bracers, such as a Vest of Armor, which would serve the same purpose.
5) Correct. Regular (non-composite) long/short bows and crossbows do not do extra damage based on STR.
6) I've never found it to be overpowered. There are lots of ways for a GM to get around it. It can only be used once per round (so if the party is fighting a group of archers, only the first one's arrow would be deflected), any smart NPC that is using a bow against a Monk will quickly figure out that he is ineffective and will change targets, and NPCs can rush up to the Monk instead to engage him in melee.