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Late to the party and I hadn't the time to read all the posts, but I would do something like this:
throw an handful of cons to the dwarf "Now you have had your reward, greedy creature, now all of you, depart the land of my people and know that if you return you will be greeted with arrows and spears."
Immediate apologies by the other party members will allow them to stay, but unless the dwarf PC grovel while making his apology he will be banished.
Even if they somewhat appease the centaurs, they will hear some of them muttering "greed mercenaries". If that has happened frequently they will discover that they have a reputation of working only for money.
That way you show that the way in which the characters act have consequences and that those consequences can be bad for the whole group, not only for the one insulting the NPC.